Cláudio A B Toledo

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In mammals, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic diencephalic cell group that develops in the caudal hypothalamus and migrates to a position above the cerebral peduncle. By its input from the external pallidal segment and projection to the internal pallidal segment, STN plays a critical role in basal ganglia functions. Although the basal ganglia(More)
The pretectum is involved in the neural integration of visually dependent responses. We studied the occurrence of immunoreactivity for subunits that constitute the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors in the chick pretectum. Four pretectal nuclei of the chick brain, namely, the nucleus pretectalis, the(More)
Orbital and choroidal blood vessels in mammals are known to receive a parasympathetic innervation from the pterygopalatine ganglion, which appears to utilize vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) to increase choroidal blood flow. The present studies were undertaken to elucidate the anatomical and neurotransmitter organization of the(More)
The eponymous term nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EW) has come to be used to describe two juxtaposed and somewhat intermingled cell groups of the midbrain that differ dramatically in their connectivity and neurochemistry. On one hand, the classically defined EW is the part of the oculomotor complex that is the source of the parasympathetic preganglionic(More)
The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the thalamic intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) are considered to be the main centers of the mammalian circadian timing system. In primates, the IGL is included as part of the pregeniculate nucleus (PGN), a cell group located mediodorsally to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. This work was carried out to(More)
The avian optic tectum has become a reliable model system to study the basic mechanisms that underlie the computation of visual stimuli. Many aspects of its cytoarchitecture, chemoarchitecture, connectivity and development are thoroughly characterized. However, knowledge about its monoaminergic innervation is still incomplete. As a prerequisite to(More)
The thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) receives afferents from numerous brain areas, including the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), considered to be the major circadian pacemaker. The PVT also sends projections to the SCN, limbic system centers and some nuclei involved in the control of the Sleep-Wake cycle. In this study, we report the(More)
Injections of a retrograde tracer into the accessory optic nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) of the pigeon, combined with 5-HT immunochemistry, revealed that serotonergic projections to the nBOR appeared to originate mainly from the median (MR) and paramedian (PMR) raphe nuclei. These projections were confirmed by the significant decrease in 5-HT(More)
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN) is a central preganglionic parasympathetic cell group that gives rise to cholinergic input to the ciliary ganglion, thereby regulating several neurovegetative ocular functions. Recently, the supposed presence of the neuropeptide urocortin (UCN) has been reported in EWN neurons in rodent brain. The purpose of the present(More)
The avian hippocampal formation (HF) is reported to have a role equivalent to that of the mammalian hippocampus, which may involve the glutamatergic system as well. In the present paper we offer evidence of the occurrence and distribution of the subunits composing AMPA-type glutamate receptors on neurons in the hippocampus region of the pigeon brain. The(More)