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This work investigated the effect of gallium arsenide (GaAs) irradiation (power: 5 mW; intensity: 77.14 mW/cm(2), spot: 0.07 cm(2)) on regenerating skeletal muscles damaged by crotoxin (CTX). Male C57Bl6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 5 each): control, treated only with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J, CTX-injured and, CTX-injured and treated with(More)
In mammals, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic diencephalic cell group that develops in the caudal hypothalamus and migrates to a position above the cerebral peduncle. By its input from the external pallidal segment and projection to the internal pallidal segment, STN plays a critical role in basal ganglia functions. Although the basal ganglia(More)
The pretectum is involved in the neural integration of visually dependent responses. We studied the occurrence of immunoreactivity for subunits that constitute the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors in the chick pretectum. Four pretectal nuclei of the chick brain, namely, the nucleus pretectalis, the(More)
The present study was carried out to identify the diencephalic and midbrain neurons in pigeons that respond to stress (using restraint as the stressor) and determine if the urocortinergic neurons (expressing urocortin 1, Ucn1) below the midbrain central gray are among those activated. Immunolabeling for the immediate early gene Egr-1 was used to identity(More)
The eponymous term nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EW) has come to be used to describe two juxtaposed and somewhat intermingled cell groups of the midbrain that differ dramatically in their connectivity and neurochemistry. On one hand, the classically defined EW is the part of the oculomotor complex that is the source of the parasympathetic preganglionic(More)
Orbital and choroidal blood vessels in mammals are known to receive a parasympathetic innervation from the pterygopalatine ganglion, which appears to utilize vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) to increase choroidal blood flow. The present studies were undertaken to elucidate the anatomical and neurotransmitter organization of the(More)
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN) is a central preganglionic parasympathetic cell group that gives rise to cholinergic input to the ciliary ganglion, thereby regulating several neurovegetative ocular functions. Recently, the supposed presence of the neuropeptide urocortin (UCN) has been reported in EWN neurons in rodent brain. The purpose of the present(More)
The thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) receives afferents from numerous brain areas, including the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), considered to be the major circadian pacemaker. The PVT also sends projections to the SCN, limbic system centers and some nuclei involved in the control of the Sleep-Wake cycle. In this study, we report the(More)
Choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in birds is regulated by a neural circuit whose components are the retina, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the medial division of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWM), the ciliary ganglion, and the choriod. We have previously shown that lesions of EWM appear to result in pathological alterations in the retina. To determine whether EWM(More)
Chicken (Gallus gallus) brains were used to investigate the typology and the immunolabel pattern for the subunits composing the AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluR) of hindbrain neurons of the dorsal (dND) and ventral nuclei (vND) of the Deiter's vestibular complex (CD), which is the avian correspondent of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) of mammals.(More)