Cláudio A B Toledo

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In mammals, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic diencephalic cell group that develops in the caudal hypothalamus and migrates to a position above the cerebral peduncle. By its input from the external pallidal segment and projection to the internal pallidal segment, STN plays a critical role in basal ganglia functions. Although the basal ganglia(More)
The pretectum is involved in the neural integration of visually dependent responses. We studied the occurrence of immunoreactivity for subunits that constitute the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors in the chick pretectum. Four pretectal nuclei of the chick brain, namely, the nucleus pretectalis, the(More)
Orbital and choroidal blood vessels in mammals are known to receive a parasympathetic innervation from the pterygopalatine ganglion, which appears to utilize vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) to increase choroidal blood flow. The present studies were undertaken to elucidate the anatomical and neurotransmitter organization of the(More)
The thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) receives afferents from numerous brain areas, including the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), considered to be the major circadian pacemaker. The PVT also sends projections to the SCN, limbic system centers and some nuclei involved in the control of the Sleep-Wake cycle. In this study, we report the(More)
Choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in birds is regulated by a neural circuit whose components are the retina, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the medial division of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWM), the ciliary ganglion, and the choriod. We have previously shown that lesions of EWM appear to result in pathological alterations in the retina. To determine whether EWM(More)
The avian hippocampal formation (HF) is reported to have a role equivalent to that of the mammalian hippocampus, which may involve the glutamatergic system as well. In the present paper we offer evidence of the occurrence and distribution of the subunits composing AMPA-type glutamate receptors on neurons in the hippocampus region of the pigeon brain. The(More)
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN) is a central preganglionic parasympathetic cell group that gives rise to cholinergic input to the ciliary ganglion, thereby regulating several neurovegetative ocular functions. Recently, the supposed presence of the neuropeptide urocortin (UCN) has been reported in EWN neurons in rodent brain. The purpose of the present(More)
Chicken (Gallus gallus) brains were used to investigate the typology and the immunolabel pattern for the subunits composing the AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluR) of hindbrain neurons of the dorsal (dND) and ventral nuclei (vND) of the Deiter's vestibular complex (CD), which is the avian correspondent of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) of mammals.(More)
The distribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits was studied in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) of chicks and pigeons. GluR1, GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 subunits appeared to be present in EW neurons of both species, but interspecific differences were observed in the abundance of the different types of subunits found in EW neurons. Of(More)
Habituation to sound stimulation was analyzed in terms of the functional role of the telencephalon in learning. Sixteen pigeons were exposed to 1000-Hz, 83-dB, 1-s sound (stimulus A) at 30-s intervals until there was habituation of the exploratory and pre-exploratory responses. The learning criterion was 10 trials without the occurrence of these responses.(More)