Cláudio A B Toledo

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Orbital and choroidal blood vessels in mammals are known to receive a parasympathetic innervation from the pterygopalatine ganglion, which appears to utilize vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) to increase choroidal blood flow. The present studies were undertaken to elucidate the anatomical and neurotransmitter organization of the(More)
In mammals, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic diencephalic cell group that develops in the caudal hypothalamus and migrates to a position above the cerebral peduncle. By its input from the external pallidal segment and projection to the internal pallidal segment, STN plays a critical role in basal ganglia functions. Although the basal ganglia(More)
This work investigated the effect of gallium arsenide (GaAs) irradiation (power: 5 mW; intensity: 77.14 mW/cm2, spot: 0.07 cm2) on regenerating skeletal muscles damaged by crotoxin (CTX). Male C57Bl6 mice were divided into six groups (n = 5 each): control, treated only with laser at doses of 1.5 J or 3 J, CTX-injured and, CTX-injured and treated with laser(More)
The pretectum is involved in the neural integration of visually dependent responses. We studied the occurrence of immunoreactivity for subunits that constitute the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors in the chick pretectum. Four pretectal nuclei of the chick brain, namely, the nucleus pretectalis, the(More)
The eponymous term nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EW) has come to be used to describe two juxtaposed and somewhat intermingled cell groups of the midbrain that differ dramatically in their connectivity and neurochemistry. On one hand, the classically defined EW is the part of the oculomotor complex that is the source of the parasympathetic preganglionic(More)
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN) is a central preganglionic parasympathetic cell group that gives rise to cholinergic input to the ciliary ganglion, thereby regulating several neurovegetative ocular functions. Recently, the supposed presence of the neuropeptide urocortin (UCN) has been reported in EWN neurons in rodent brain. The purpose of the present(More)
The present study was carried out to identify the diencephalic and midbrain neurons in pigeons that respond to stress (using restraint as the stressor) and determine if the urocortinergic neurons (expressing urocortin 1, Ucn1) below the midbrain central gray are among those activated. Immunolabeling for the immediate early gene Egr-1 was used to identity(More)
Corticostriatal and thalamostriatal projections utilize glutamate as a neurotransmitter in mammals and birds. The influence on striatum is mediated, in part, by ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate receptors, which are heteromers composed of GluR1-4 subunits. Although the cellular localization of AMPA-type subunits has been well characterized in mammalian basal(More)
The distribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits was studied in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) of chicks and pigeons. GluR1, GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 subunits appeared to be present in EW neurons of both species, but interspecific differences were observed in the abundance of the different types of subunits found in EW neurons. Of(More)
The thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) receives afferents from numerous brain areas, including the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), considered to be the major circadian pacemaker. The PVT also sends projections to the SCN, limbic system centers and some nuclei involved in the control of the Sleep-Wake cycle. In this study, we report the(More)