Ciro Ramos-Estebanez

Learn More
OBJECTIVE rTMS is increasingly being used for stimulation to non-motor areas, but available safety guidelines are derived from experience with motor cortex rTMS. We reviewed the literature and our own data to assess the safety of rTMS to non-motor areas. METHODS We reviewed for adverse effects all articles published from January 1998 to December 2003 that(More)
Procedural skills consist of several components that can be simultaneously acquired. During a motor-learning task we can distinguish between how a "movement" is performed (intrinsic component) and the spatial-related (extrinsic) component of this movement. The intrinsic movement component is thought to be supported by motor loops, including primary motor(More)
This paper explores how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced currents in the brain are perturbed by electrical and anatomical changes following a stroke in its chronic stage. Multiple MRI derived finite element head models were constructed and evaluated to address the effects that strokes can have on the induced stimulating TMS currents by(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the occipital cortex can elicit phosphenes. Changes in the phosphene threshold provide a measure of visual cortex excitability. Phosphene threshold was measured in participants blindfolded for five consecutive days to assess the effects of prolonged visual deprivation on visual cortical excitability. After 48 h(More)
Crossmodal sensory interactions serve to integrate behaviorally relevant sensory stimuli. In this study, we investigated the effect of modulating crossmodal interactions between visual and somatosensory stimuli that in isolation do not reach perceptual awareness. When a subthreshold somatosensory stimulus was delivered within close spatiotemporal congruency(More)
This paper is aimed at exploring the effect of cortical brain atrophy on the currents induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We compared the currents induced by various TMS conditions on several different MRI derived finite element head models of brain atrophy, incorporating both decreasing cortical volume and widened sulci. The current(More)
Electrical neurostimulation techniques, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are increasingly used in the neurosciences, e.g., for studying brain function, and for neurotherapeutics, e.g., for treating depression, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease. The characterization of electrical properties of brain tissue has(More)
BACKGROUND Most herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) patients become disabled despite antiviral therapy. Adjunctive corticosteroid therapy may improve outcomes. METHODS This was a systematic review of the literature addressing the use of corticosteroids in HSVE. RESULTS Data suggesting that steroids decrease the immunological response and enhance(More)