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Adult male rats exposed to alcohol in utero results in reduction of the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SND-POA). Reduction of the volume of this nucleus is also significantly reduced in rats exposed to ethanol postnatally compared to the volume in animals not exposed to ethanol (P less than 0.05). The results indicate that(More)
Intracerebral inoculation of susceptible mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces a demyelinating disease that is similar to human multiple sclerosis. This murine model for human multiple sclerosis is apparently immune-mediated and the genes involved in the immune response influence the outcome of disease susceptibility as observed with(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in humans which affects females more frequently than males. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces demyelination similar to human MS in susceptible strains of mice after intracerebral inoculation. In this paper we report that sex influences susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelination in(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces demyelinating disease in susceptible mouse strains after intracerebral inoculation. The clinical symptoms and histopathology of the central nervous system appear to be similar to those of human multiple sclerosis (MS), and thus, this system provides an excellent infectious animal model for studying MS.(More)
BACKGROUND Successful tumor immunotherapy depends on the induction of strong and sustained tumor antigen-specific immune responses by activated antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells (DCs). Since nanoparticles have the potential to codeliver tumor-specific antigen and DC-stimulating adjuvant in a DC-targeting manner, we wanted to assess the(More)
Pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is activated by increased sympathetic activity or by administration of isoproterenol. These experiments examined the effects of fetal alcohol exposure on the pharmacological induction of NAT activity in rats. Fetal alcohol exposure resulted in a significant reduction of NAT activity compared to that in rats whose mothers(More)
Poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylamide) (P(DHPMA))-based amphiphilic block copolymers have recently proven to form polymer vesicles (polymersomes). In this work, we further expand their potential by incorporating (i) units for pH-dependent disintegration into the hydrophobic membrane and (ii) mannose as targeting unit into the hydrophilic block. This last(More)
To achieve specific cell targeting by various receptors for oligosaccharides or antibodies, a carrier must not be taken up by any of the very many different cells and needs functional groups prone to clean conjugation chemistry to derive well-defined structures with a high biological specificity. A polymeric nanocarrier is presented that consists of a(More)
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