Cindy R. Alexander

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In contrast with the prevailing view that most tumors and metastases begin as avascular masses, evidence is presented here that a subset of tumors instead initially grows by coopting existing host vessels. This coopted host vasculature does not immediately undergo angiogenesis to support the tumor but instead regresses, leading to a secondarily avascular(More)
The pattern of retrograde axonal transport of the target-derived neurotrophic molecule, nerve growth factor (NGF), correlates with its trophic actions in adult neurons. We have determined that the NGF-related neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are also retrogradely transported by distinct populations of(More)
The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of(More)
This paper examines the consequences of accounting scandals to top management, top financial officers, and outside auditors. We examine a sample of 518 U.S. public companies that announced earnings-decreasing restatements during the 1997-2002 period and an industry-size matched sample of control firms. Using logistic regressions that control for other(More)
We have investigated the suitability of a recently identified and characterized population of neuronal progenitor cells for their potential use in the replacement of degenerating or damaged neurons in the mammalian brain. The unique population of neuronal progenitor cells is situated in a well-delineated region of the anterior part of the neonatal(More)
Monitoring functional status in patients with cardiac disease has traditionally been done by using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification system. For various reasons, we found the NYHA system difficult to apply to elderly patients. We proposed that the functional status questionnaire (FSQ), which measures the ability to perform tasks, would(More)
We evaluate the impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) on shareholders by studying the lobbying behavior of investors and corporate insiders in order to affect the final implemented rules under SOX. Investors lobbied overwhelmingly in favor of strict implementation of SOX, while corporate insiders and business groups lobbied against strict implementation.(More)
Concern over regulated monopolies entering unregulated vertically-related markets is grounded in the incentives for such firms to cross-subsidize their unregulated enterprises or discriminate against competitors in the unregulated market. However, a prohibition against regulated monopolies offering related goods may forfeit the benefits of production by the(More)
Many directors are not simply insiders or outsiders. For example, an officer of a supplier firm is neither independent nor captive of management. We use a spatial model of board decision-making to analyze bargaining among multiple types of directors. Board decisions are modeled using a new bargaining solution concept called consensus. We use consensus to(More)
We study the information content and consequences of third-party voting advice issued during proxy contests. Focusing on recommendations by a leading proxy advisor, we find significant abnormal stock returns around the dates recommendations become public. The economic interpretation is that voting advice conveys new information to the market. To investigate(More)