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In contrast with the prevailing view that most tumors and metastases begin as avascular masses, evidence is presented here that a subset of tumors instead initially grows by coopting existing host vessels. This coopted host vasculature does not immediately undergo angiogenesis to support the tumor but instead regresses, leading to a secondarily avascular(More)
The pattern of retrograde axonal transport of the target-derived neurotrophic molecule, nerve growth factor (NGF), correlates with its trophic actions in adult neurons. We have determined that the NGF-related neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are also retrogradely transported by distinct populations of(More)
The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of(More)
Monitoring functional status in patients with cardiac disease has traditionally been done by using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification system. For various reasons, we found the NYHA system difficult to apply to elderly patients. We proposed that the functional status questionnaire (FSQ), which measures the ability to perform tasks, would(More)
This paper examines the consequences of accounting scandals to top management, top financial officers, and outside auditors. We examine a sample of 518 U.S. public companies that announced earnings-decreasing restatements during the 1997-2002 period and an industry-size matched sample of control firms. Using logistic regressions that control for other(More)
We have investigated the suitability of a recently identified and characterized population of neuronal progenitor cells for their potential use in the replacement of degenerating or damaged neurons in the mammalian brain. The unique population of neuronal progenitor cells is situated in a well-delineated region of the anterior part of the neonatal(More)
We present a model in which issuers of asset-backed securities choose to release coarse information to enhance the liquidity of their primary market, at the cost of reducing secondary market liquidity. The degree of transparency is inefficiently low if the social value of secondary market liquidity exceeds its private value. We show that various types of(More)
We evaluate the net benefits of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) for shareholders by studying the lobbying behavior of investors and corporate insiders to affect the final implemented rules under the Act. Investors lobbied overwhelmingly in favor of strict implementation of SOX, while corporate insiders and business groups lobbied against strict implementation.(More)
The views expressed here reflect the views of the authors alone, and do not necessarily reflect the views of any of their organizations. In particular, the views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of the Federal Trade Commission, nor any Commissioner. We would like to thank ABSTRACT Concern over regulated monopolies entering unregulated(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify child characteristics, factors related to the therapy referral, and caregivers' psychological and social variables that predict sexually abused children's beginning therapy following a therapy referral. METHOD Investigators abstracted data from case records of 101 families whose children were referred to a Children's Advocacy Center(More)