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Man has been found to produce highly conserved chitinases. The most prominent is the phagocyte-derived chitotriosidase, the plasma levels of which are markedly elevated in some pathological conditions. Here, we report that both polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages (m) are a source of chitotriosidase. The enzyme is located in specific(More)
Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the α-subunits of the associated signalling complex (αGustducin, Gα14 and αTransducin), in oral and(More)
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A that affects males and shows disease expression in heterozygotes. The characteristic progressive renal insufficiency, cardiac involvement, and neuropathology usually are ascribed to globotriaosylceramide accumulation in the endothelium. However, no direct(More)
Over the last decade, compelling evidence has been presented that cytokines affect adipocyte tissue formation and function. In this study we explored the effect of pro-inflammatory (i.e. interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) versus anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth(More)
UNLABELLED Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The hyperinsulinemia that occurs as a consequence of insulin resistance is thought to be an important contributor to the development of fatty liver. We have shown that the iminosugar(More)
OBJECTIVE The iminosugar N-(5'-adamantane-1'-yl-methoxy)-pentyl-1-deoxynoijirimycin (AMP-DNM), an inhibitor of the enzyme glucosylceramide synthase catalyzing glycosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis, ameliorates diabetes and reduces liver steatosis in ob/ob mice. Because an accumulation of sphingolipids, including sphingomyelin and GSLs, has been reported in(More)
Adiponectin is a fat cell-derived hormone with insulin-sensitizing properties. Low plasma adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance as found in obesity. One of the mechanisms for this finding is hampered insulin signaling via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) with concomitant decreased adiponectin secretion. Because insulin can also(More)
Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipose tissue function and inflammation in detail to provide an(More)
Ezetimibe stimulates faecal neutral sterol (FNS) excretion in mice, which cannot be explained by cholesterol absorption inhibition alone. We investigated whether these effects are mediated via the sterol exporter ATP binding cassette transporter G8 (abcg8). Ezetimibe increased FNS excretion 2.7-fold in WT mice and 1.5-fold in abcg8(-/-) mice, without(More)
A high-end label: Cyclophellitol aziridine-type activity-based probes allow for ultra-sensitive visualization of mammalian β-glucosidases (GBA1, GBA2, GBA3, and LPH) as well as several non-mammalian β-glucosidases (see picture). These probes offer new ways to study β-exoglucosidases, and configurational isomers of the cyclophellitol aziridine core may give(More)