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Glycosphingolipids are structural membrane components, residing largely in the plasma membrane with their sugar-moieties exposed at the cell's surface. In recent times a crucial role for glycosphingolipids in insulin resistance has been proposed. A chronic state of insulin resistance is a rapidly increasing disease condition in Western and developing(More)
Man has been found to produce highly conserved chitinases. The most prominent is the phagocyte-derived chitotriosidase, the plasma levels of which are markedly elevated in some pathological conditions. Here, we report that both polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages (m) are a source of chitotriosidase. The enzyme is located in specific(More)
Sweet perception promotes food intake, whereas that of bitterness is inhibitory. Surprisingly, the expression of sweet G protein-coupled taste receptor (GPCTR) subunits (T1R2 and T1R3) and bitter GPCTRs (T2R116, T2R118, T2R138 and T2R104), as well as the α-subunits of the associated signalling complex (αGustducin, Gα14 and αTransducin), in oral and(More)
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A that affects males and shows disease expression in heterozygotes. The characteristic progressive renal insufficiency, cardiac involvement, and neuropathology usually are ascribed to globotriaosylceramide accumulation in the endothelium. However, no direct(More)
Over the last decade, compelling evidence has been presented that cytokines affect adipocyte tissue formation and function. In this study we explored the effect of pro-inflammatory (i.e. interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) versus anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth(More)
OBJECTIVE The iminosugar N-(5'-adamantane-1'-yl-methoxy)-pentyl-1-deoxynoijirimycin (AMP-DNM), an inhibitor of the enzyme glucosylceramide synthase catalyzing glycosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis, ameliorates diabetes and reduces liver steatosis in ob/ob mice. Because an accumulation of sphingolipids, including sphingomyelin and GSLs, has been reported in(More)
The iminosugar N-(5'-adamantane-1'-yl-methoxy)-pentyl-1-deoxynoijirimycin (AMP-DNM), an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis is known to ameliorate diabetes, insulin sensitivity and to prevent liver steatosis in ob/ob mice. Thus far the effect of GSL synthesis inhibition on pre-existing NASH has not yet been assessed. To investigate it,(More)
Obesity and its associated conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The iminosugar N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy-pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current study, we characterized the impact of AMP-DNM on(More)
Adiponectin is a fat cell-derived hormone with insulin-sensitizing properties. Low plasma adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance as found in obesity. One of the mechanisms for this finding is hampered insulin signaling via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) with concomitant decreased adiponectin secretion. Because insulin can also(More)
A high-end label: Cyclophellitol aziridine-type activity-based probes allow for ultra-sensitive visualization of mammalian β-glucosidases (GBA1, GBA2, GBA3, and LPH) as well as several non-mammalian β-glucosidases (see picture). These probes offer new ways to study β-exoglucosidases, and configurational isomers of the cyclophellitol aziridine core may give(More)