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Epilepsy of progressive myoclonus type 2 gene A (EPM2A) encodes a dual specificity protein phosphatase called Laforin. Laforin is also a tumor suppressor that dephosphorylates GSK3beta at the critical Ser9 position and regulates Wnt signaling. The epilepsy-causing mutations have a deleterious effect on phosphatase activity, regardless of whether they locate(More)
INTRODUCTION Resident aesthetic clinics (RACs) have demonstrated good outcomes and acceptable patient satisfaction, but few studies have evaluated their educational, financial, or medicolegal components. We sought to determine RAC best practices. METHODS We surveyed American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeon members (n = 399), focusing on operational(More)
INTRODUCTION CD40 is a transmembrane protein expressed on monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and platelets. Platelets are the richest source of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and interact with monocytes and endothelial cells via CD40. While CD40 was recently reported to be present on neutrophils, the detailed mechanism of its interaction with(More)
A significant problem in flexor tendon repair is the lack of suitable graft material for reconstruction. The ex vivo production of flexor tendon graft constructs requires the expansion of primary cells. Growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), are(More)
The majority of the Lafora's disease (LD) is caused by defect in the EPM2A gene, including missense and nonsense mutations and deletions. These defects mainly occur in the carbohydrate-binding domain, and how these mutations cause neuronal defects is under active investigation. Here, we report that the mutant proteins encoded by all missense mutations and(More)
The genetic mechanisms responsible for increased incidence of lymphoma in immunocompromised individuals have not been fully elucidated. We show that, in a line of TCR transgenic TG-B mice, an insertional mutation in one allele of the Epm2a locus and epigenetic silencing of another led to a high rate of lymphoma with early onset. Overexpressing Epm2a(More)
Dipyridamole, a well-known inhibitor of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase and the adenosine transporter, reportedly possesses antioxidant properties and attenuates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in platelet and endothelial cells. The relevance of the redox status of this compound or the mechanism for its redox-dependent effects is unknown. Oxidation(More)
A long-standing but poorly understood observation in experimental cancer therapy is the heterogeneity in cancer susceptibility to energy deprivation. Here, we show that the hexose kinase inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-dG) preferentially kills cancer cells with defective laforin expression and significantly increases the survival of mice with aggressive(More)
BACKGROUND Laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (ICG-A) has been promoted to assess perfusion of random skin, pedicled, and free flaps. Few studies address its potential limitations. METHODS Thirty-seven patients who underwent reconstructive procedures with ICG-A were studied retrospectively to determine the correlation between clinical findings(More)
INTRODUCTION Hypertrophic burn scars produce significant morbidity, including itching, pain, stiffness, and contracture. Best practices for management continue to evolve. Lasers have recently been added to treatment algorithms, but indications and efficacy have not been fully defined. We studied the impact of laser therapies on hypertrophic burn scars. (More)