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Serologic testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the primary way to identify persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Testing has been recommended previously for pregnant women, infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers, household contacts and sex partners of HBV-infected persons, persons born in countries with HBsAg prevalence of(More)
Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its consequences, including cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. In adults, ongoing HBV transmission occurs primarily among unvaccinated persons with behavioral risks for HBV transmission (e.g., heterosexuals with multiple sex(More)
The 2 million persons incarcerated in US prisons and jails are disproportionately affected by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV, with prevalences of infection two to ten times higher than in the general population. Infections are largely due to sex- and drug-related risk behaviors practised outside the correctional setting, although(More)
Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Information on time trends in prevalence of these viruses among IDUs and in behaviors influencing their transmission can help define the status of these epidemics and of public health efforts to control them.(More)
SUMMARY Performance characteristics of rapid assays for hepatitis C virus antibody were evaluated in 4 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System injection drug use sites. The highest assay-specific sensitivities achieved for the Chembio, MedMira and OraSure tests were 94.0%, 78.9%, and 97.4%, respectively; the highest specificities were 97.7%, 83.3%, and(More)
BACKGROUND Without diagnosis and antiviral therapy, many patients with chronic hepatitis C infections will develop end-stage liver disease and die from complications. AIMS To evaluate the future impacts of preventive interventions and treatment advances, this paper forecasts a baseline estimate of the future morbidity and mortality of prevalent hepatitis(More)
This report consolidates previous recommendations and adds new ones for preventing and controlling infections with hepatitis viruses in correctional settings. These recommendations provide guidelines for juvenile and adult correctional systems regarding 1) identification and investigation of acute viral hepatitis; 2) preexposure and postexposure(More)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing to identify hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for foreign-born persons from areas with HBsAg prevalence of > or = 2%. Currently, most HBsAg screening in the United States is performed by independent community organizations. For these HBsAg screening(More)
The prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in prisons ranges from 12% to 31%. There are generally accepted--albeit still evolving--guidelines for identification and treatment of hepatitis C in the community. However, there is less agreement among health professionals caring for prisoners about best practices for identification, medical(More)
Hepatitis B vaccination and targeted testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are recommended for jails with medical services available. This study estimates hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV infection prevalence among jail inmates, since most previous studies have been conducted among prison inmates. Prison and jail populations differ: jails hold a wide spectrum(More)