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Urocortin 3 (Ucn 3) is a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related peptide with high affinity for the type 2 CRF receptor (CRFR2). Central administration of Ucn 3 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, suppresses feeding, and elevates blood glucose levels, suggesting that activation of brain CRFR2 promotes stress-like responses. Several(More)
Activins control many physiologic and pathophysiologic processes in multiple tissues and, like other TGF-beta superfamily members, signal via type II (ActRII/IIB) and type I (ALK4) receptor serine kinases. ActRII/IIB are promiscuous receptors known to bind at least a dozen TGF-beta superfamily ligands including activins, myostatin, several BMPs, and nodal.(More)
The potencies and selectivity of peptide CRF antagonists is increased through structural constraints, suggesting that the resulting ligands assume distinct conformations when interacting with CRF1 and CRF2 receptors. To develop selective CRF receptor agonists, we have scanned the sequence -Gln-Ala-His-Ser-Asn-Arg- (residues 30-35 of(More)
A polymorphic Alu element belonging to the young Ya5 subfamily of Alu repeats located in the progesterone receptor gene has been characterized. Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay, the genetic diversity associated with the PROGINS Alu repeat was determined in a diverse array of human populations. The level of insertion polymorphism(More)
Gender differences in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and the prevalence of mood disorders are well documented. Urocortin 2, a recently identified member of the corticotropin-releasing factor family, is expressed in discrete neuroendocrine and stress-related nuclei of the rodent CNS. To determine the physiological role of urocortin 2,(More)
Skeletal muscle is the principal tissue responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and is a major site of peripheral insulin resistance. Urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, and its cognate type 2 CRF receptor (CRFR2) are highly expressed in skeletal muscle. To determine the physiological role of Ucn 2,(More)
The precise regulation of the anterior pituitary is achieved by the cell-specific and combined actions of central, peripheral and local factors. Activins, inhibins, and follistatins were first discovered as gonadal factors with actions on FSH production from pituitary gonadotropes. With the realization that these factors are expressed in a wide array of(More)
Activins, as members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, control and orchestrate many physiological processes and are vital for the development, growth and functional integrity of most tissues, including the pituitary. Activins produced by pituitary cells work in conjunction with central, peripheral, and other local factors to influence the(More)
Pituitary actions of ligands of the TGF-b family: activins and inhibins Abstract Activins, as members of the transforming growth factor-b superfamily, control and orchestrate many physiological processes and are vital for the development, growth and functional integrity of most tissues, including the pituitary. Activins produced by pituitary cells work in(More)
Introduction: For many years, stress and anxiety disorders have taken a heavy toll on the American population. Affecting approximately 40 million individuals over the age of 18, the discovery of treatment options is very important. Ever since the 1950s, a wide variety of compounds have been discovered and proven to have antagonistic properties for such(More)
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