Cindy Irwin

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BACKGROUND Identifying the etiologies of real or perceived adverse clinical events and undesired outcomes is an important step in improving patient safety and reducing malpractice risks. Systematic analysis of obstetrics and gynecology-related risk management files allows a more complete examination of ways that human and systems factors may contribute to(More)
Benzoic acid is widely used as a preservative in food products and is detoxified in humans through glycine conjugation. Different viewpoints prevail on the physiological significance of the glycine conjugation reaction and concerns have been raised on potential public health consequences following uncontrolled benzoic acid ingestion. We performed a(More)
OBJECTIVES Identifying the etiologies of adverse outcomes is an important first step in improving patient safety and reducing malpractice risks. However, relatively little is known about the causes of emergency department-related adverse outcomes. The objective was to describe a method for identification of common causes of adverse outcomes in an emergency(More)
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