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OBJECTIVE Financial conflict of interest has been reported to be prevalent in clinical trials in general medicine and associated with a greater likelihood of reporting results favorable to the intervention being studied. The extent and implications of industry sponsorship and financial conflict of interest in psychiatric clinical trials have not been(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE The aim was to assess the influence of childhood reading on the development of myopia after allowance for familial differences in susceptibility. DESIGN The study was a cross sectional survey. SETTING Four fishing harbours in Hong Kong in 1989. SUBJECTS Participants were 408 men and women aged 15-39 years old from 159 families. MAIN(More)
BACKGROUND Preliminary evidence suggests that valproate is associated with isolated features of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), while contradictory data support an association between epilepsy and PCOS. The development of PCOS features after initiation of valproate was therefore examined in women with bipolar disorder using a standardized definition of(More)
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism central to development and maintenance of complex mammalian tissues, but our understanding of its role in intestinal development is limited. We use whole genome bisulfite sequencing, and find that differentiation of mouse colonic intestinal stem cells to intestinal epithelium is not associated with major changes in(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES The aim was to test whether cataract is associated with higher lifetime exposure to sunlight, and whether antioxidants protect against cataract. DESIGN This was a cross sectional survey of eye disease, with assessment of antioxidant status in a subgroup. SETTING Hong Kong fishing communities in 1989. PARTICIPANTS 685 men and women(More)
BACKGROUND In the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder, we showed that valproate is associated with new-onset menstrual-cycle irregularities and hyperandrogenism in 10.5% of 86 women. We now determine whether polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) features reverse on valproate discontinutation. METHODS Women with valproate-associated(More)
BACKGROUND Preliminary reports suggest that menstrual cycle irregularities occur more commonly in women with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression than in the general population. However, it is not always clear whether such abnormalities, reflecting disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, are caused by psychotropic treatments or(More)
Two different types of familial nephrotic syndrome were observed in two unrelated families. In the first family, 2 siblings, both boys without hearing impairment, had proteinuria which was evident after 10 years of age and were resistant to steroid and immunosuppressant therapy. Their renal biopsy findings were compatible with focal-segmental(More)
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