Cindy Diamond Zolnierek

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AIM This paper is a report of a literature review of the evidence regarding outcomes experienced by severely mentally ill individuals hospitalized in general medical-surgical settings for non-psychiatric conditions. BACKGROUND Severely mentally ill individuals experience chronic medical illnesses at a rate greater than the general population. When(More)
BACKGROUND When hospitalized for medical conditions, many people with severe mental illness (SMI) have poor outcomes, yet little is known about contributing factors. Studies exploring the care experience from nurses' perspectives described care processes as "difficult." None of these studies were conducted in the United States, and sociocultural contexts(More)
Although omitted from the World Health Organization's eight Millennium Development Goals, mental illness ranks fourth of the 10 leading causes of disability in the world and is expected to approach second place by 2020. Scarce resources challenge responses to mental health needs. Effective approaches must consider existing healthcare delivery networks,(More)
This paper describes a literature review concerning the use of phenomenology to explore the experiences of persons with severe mental illness. Data from 35 publications were abstracted and summarized. The congruence between philosophical underpinnings and methods are critiqued. Findings of individual studies are summarized and reveal desires for normalcy,(More)
Adequate nurse staffing is inextricably linked to patient outcomes and, although optimal staffing levels for inpatient hospital units are widely debated, staffing standards for critical care areas such as intensive care units may be less variable. Even established staffing levels cannot guarantee adequate staffing. The nursing workforce shortage has(More)
Expected or unexpected, when it occurs, hospitalization is a major life event for most people—an event that emphasizes one’s illness and vulnerability. Patients hospitalized in general hospital settings are likely to feel anxious as they deal with a foreign environment that removes personal power and control and imposes unfamiliar routines, structures, and(More)
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