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BACKGROUND Stimulation of various sites, from the nasal mucosa to the diaphragm, can evoke laryngospasm. To reduce airway reflexes, tracheal extubation should be performed while the patient is deeply(More)
BACKGROUND A critical point in craniotomy is during opening of the dura and the subsequent potential for cerebral edema. Use of desflurane in neurosurgery may be beneficial because it facilitates(More)
BACKGROUND Fentanyl-induced cough is common but has not been viewed as a serious anesthetic problem. However, the cough may be explosive at times, may require immediate intervention, and may be(More)