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BACKGROUND Laboratory and epidemiological research suggests an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We studied the natural history of incident cervical HPV infection and its relation to the development of CIN. METHODS We recruited 2011 women aged 15-19 years who had recently become sexually active.(More)
The identification of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types as a necessary cause of cervical cancer offers the prospect of effective primary prevention and the possibility of improving the efficiency of cervical screening programmes. However, for these opportunities to be realized, a more complete understanding of the natural history of HPV infection,(More)
The process of setting screening performance targets requires an estimate of what the incidence of breast cancer would have been in the population invited for screening if there had not been a screening programme. Before the introduction of the National Health Service breast screening programme in 1988 the incidence of breast cancer was already increasing(More)
The prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus increases with increasing numbers of sexual partners, leaving the impression that this infection is acquired only as a result of high risk sexual behaviour. Using longitudinal data from 242 women who had only had one sexual partner, we found that the risk of acquiring cervical human papillomavirus infection(More)
OBJECTIVE To report the detection rate of interval cancers in women screened by the NHS breast screening programme. DESIGN Detection of interval cancers by computer linkage of records held by the screening centres in the North Western Regional Health Authority with breast cancer registrations at the regional cancer registry. SETTING North Western(More)
AIMS It has been suggested that adenocarcinomas of the lower oesophagus and gastric cardia should be reclassified as oesophagogastric junction (OGJ) cancers. This study aimed to define the frequency of OGJ cancers in a geographically defined population of 4.3 million people. METHODS All cases of oesophageal and gastric cancer occurring in 1993 were(More)
A subunit antigenoid vaccine, Ac NFU1 (S-) MRC, was used to prevent primary herpes genitalis in 60 subjects considered to be at risk of this infection. There was no evidence of serious local or general side effects. Neutralising antibody responses were detected in 59% and 90% of subjects receiving the low and high doses of vaccine respectively;(More)
Although the latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is believed to be important for the transformation of germinal centre (GC) B cells, the precise contribution of this viral oncogene to lymphoma development is poorly understood. In this study, we used a non-viral vector-based method to express LMP1 in primary human GC B cells.(More)
The polymerase chain reaction is an in vitro method for primer directed enzymatic amplification of specific target DNA sequences. The technique was used to detect human papillomavirus types 11 and 16 simultaneously in cellular DNA recovered from cervical smears in 38 women referred for colposcopy to evaluate cytological abnormality and 10 women with no(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a B-lymphotropic virus that is associated with a range of human malignancies. Although for many of these tumors the association has long been established, unraveling the precise role of EBV in disease pathogenesis has been more difficult. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the association between EBV and human(More)