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The classical hypothesis for the diversification of birds and mammals proposes that most of the orders diverged rapidly in adaptive radiations after the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) extinction event 65 million years ago. Evidence is provided by the near-absence of fossils representing modern orders before the K/T boundary. However, fossil-based estimates of(More)
The traditional view of avian evolution places ratites and tinamous at the base of the phylogenetic tree of modern birds (Neornithes). In contrast, most recent molecular studies suggest that neognathous perching birds (Passeriformes) compose the oldest lineage of modern birds. Here, we report significant molecular support for the traditional view of(More)
The living hominoids are human, the two species of chimpanzees, gorilla, orangutan, and nine species of gibbons. The cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys) are the sister group of the hominoids. A consensus about the phylogeny of the hominoids has been reached for the branching order of the gibbons (earliest) and the orangutan (next earliest), but the(More)
Single-copy nuclear DNAs (scnDNAs) of eight species of arvicoline and six species of murine rodents were compared using DNA-DNA hybridization. The branching pattern derived from the DNA comparisons is congruent with the fossil evidence and supported by comparative biochemical, chromosomal, and morphological studies. The recently improved fossil record for(More)
Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were used to address a controversial suggestion that New World vultures are related more closely to storks than to Old World vultures. Phylogenetic analyses of 1-kb sequences from 18 relevant avian species indicate that the similarities in morphology and behavior between New World and Old World(More)
To address the suitability of mitochondrial DNA sequence data for higher avian systematics, cytochrome b sequences for nine species of Cuculiformes and Galliformes were gathered and compared to those of the Hoatzin, a specialized bird whose phylogenetic affinities have long puzzled ornithologists. Additional avian cytochrome b sequences from GenBank also(More)
This paper discusses how the fields of augmented cognition and neuroergonomics can be expanded into training. Several classification algorithms based upon EEG data and occular data are discussed in terms of their ability to classify operator state in real time. These indices have been shown to enhance operator performance within adaptive automation(More)
The traditional avian Order Pelecaniformes is composed of birds with all four toes connected by a web. This "totipalmate" condition is found in ca. 66 living species: 8 pelicans (Pelecanus), 9 boobies and gannets (Sula, Papasula, Morus), ca. 37 cormorants (Phalacrocorax), 4 anhingas or darters (Anhinga), 5 frigatebirds (Fregata), and 3 tropicbirds(More)
Sibley and Ahlquist (1984, 1987) presented the results of a study of 514 DNA-DNA hybrids among the hominoids and Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae). They concluded that the branching order of the living hominoid lineages, from oldest to most recent, was gibbons, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzees, and human. Thus, a chimpanzee-human clade was indicated,(More)