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This Phase I trial evaluated the interaction between modafinil steady-state and cocaine. Twelve non-treatment seeking, cocaine dependent volunteers received four sets of randomized blinded infusions of saline, 20 mg IV cocaine, and 40 mg IV cocaine. Modafinil was given open label at 0 mg, 400 mg, or 800 mg. Modafinil combined with IV cocaine did not result(More)
OBJECTIVE This review evaluates the in vitro and in vivo evidence for inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes by the newer antidepressants and provides clinical recommendations for avoiding and managing drug interactions. METHOD The international literature on the cytochrome P450 system and related drug interactions from 1966 to 1995 was reviewed. In vitro(More)
RATIONALE Methadone maintenance treatment is complicated by the wide variability of efficacy among patients. The large interindividual variability of the plasma concentrations of methadone was previously thought to be responsible for the variable therapeutic efficacy. However, recent studies suggested that methadone may be a substrate of P-glycoprotein(More)
1. Five drugs with the predominant pharmacologic effect of inhibiting the neuronal reuptake of serotonin are available worldwide for clinical use. This class of psychoactive drugs, known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), is comprised of fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, and citalopram. 2. The SSRIs appear to share similar(More)
RATIONALE Accumulating evidence indicates that modulation of the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is responsible for many drug-drug interactions. OBJECTIVES The potential interaction of risperidone (RISP), which is metabolized by 2D6 and transported across the blood brain barrier(More)
Substance P has been extensively studied and is considered the prototypic neuropeptide of the more than 50 known neuroactive molecules. The understanding of substance P has evolved beyond the original concept as the pain transmitter of the dorsal horn. Animal and genetic research, recent developments of nonpeptide substance P antagonists, and important(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors' goal was to determine the concentration of antidepressants in amniotic fluid during maternal treatment of depression. METHOD Women treated with antidepressants undergoing amniocentesis for obstetrical reasons were enrolled. Antidepressant concentrations in amniotic fluid and maternal serum were determined with high-performance(More)
BACKGROUND The disposition characteristics and pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs provide fundamental data for designing safe and effective dosage regimens. A drug's volume of distribution, clearance, and the derived parameter, half-life, are particularly important, as they determine the degree of fluctuation between a maximum and minimum plasma(More)
Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, is widely used in the treatment of psychoses associated with schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other psychiatric disorders. Polypharmacology is a necessary condition for the optimal treatment of many patients with comorbid psychiatric and medical illness. One concern raised by the widespread use of multiple(More)
OBJECTIVE Neuropsychiatric disorders are common among elderly patients in long-term care facilities. Although dementia is most common, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson's disease, as well as other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, can also occur in this population. Our objective was(More)