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Data clustering is commonly employed in many disciplines. The aim of clustering is to partition a set of data into clusters, in which objects within the same cluster are similar and dissimilar to other objects that belong to different clusters. Over the past decade, the evolutionary algorithm has been commonly used to solve clustering problems. This study(More)
In recent decades, the redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is becoming an increasingly important issue in the initial stages of planning, designing, and controlling of systems. However, RAP in multi-state system (MSSs) still has some restrictions that components have only two performances: perfect functionality and complete failure. Therefore, this paper(More)
The last few years have seen a great deal of work on network reliability. In practical application, the transmitting utility may be restricted by some geometric limitations, such as in 2D space, changing the direction of vehicle in 2D space, if the swerve of angle is bigger than the restriction, then vehicle will be turnover. On the other hand, in realistic(More)
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