Chuong T. Dinh

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Topical preexposure prophylaxis interrupts HIV transmission at the site of mucosal exposure. Intermittently dosed vaginal gels containing the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir protected pigtailed macaques depending on the timing of viral challenge relative to gel application. However, modest or no protection was observed in clinical trials.(More)
Preexposure prophylaxis using oral regimens involving the HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) demonstrated efficacy in three clinical trials. Adherence was determined to be a key parameter for success. Incorporation of the TDF-FTC combination into intravaginal rings (IVRs) for sustained(More)
OBJECTIVES Pharmacokinetic studies in animal models are important for assessing the prophylactic potential of antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention. This study sought to identify clinically relevant doses of the marketed integrase inhibitors raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir in macaques and investigate drug penetration and antiviral activity in(More)
BACKGROUND Intravaginal rings (IVR) for HIV prevention will likely be used by women on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) hormonal contraception. We used pigtailed macaques to evaluate the effects of DMPA on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) IVR pharmacokinetics and viral shedding. METHODS Mucosal tenofovir (TFV) levels were compared in(More)
BACKGROUND Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, two prevalent sexually transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish preexposure prophylaxis efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether coinfection with Chlamydia(More)
Preclinical HIV prevention models use either a single high-dose viral challenge in depot medroxyprogesterone acetate-treated macaques or repeated viral challenges in cycling macaques. We tested the efficacy of an intravaginal tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) ring in a model combining repeated 30-mg injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate every 6(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS A reservoir intravaginal ring (IVR) eluting tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) was evaluated for 6 months of continuous use in normally cycling female pigtailed macaques with monthly IVR exchanges to define pharmacokinetics and safety. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Tenofovir levels in vaginal secretions and tissue remained consistent for(More)
Genital inflammation associated with sexually transmitted infections increases susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but it is unclear whether the increased risk can reduce the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated whether coinfection of macaques with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis decreases the(More)
BACKGROUND FTY720 is an immunomodulatory agent that reduces lymphocytes in peripheral tissues and circulation. Such agents may be effective as vaginal microbicides for HIV prevention. Systemic or vaginal application of FTY720 may reduce lymphocyte concentrations in genital tissues, reducing HIV target cell numbers. METHODS Five female pigtail macaques(More)