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The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that(More)
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzymes have recently become a focal point for research aimed at understanding the biology of glioma. IDH1 and IDH2 are mutated in 50%-80% of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, oligoastrocytomas, and secondary glioblastomas but are seldom mutated in primary glioblastomas. Gliomas with IDH1/2 mutations always harbor other(More)
miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) are frequently up-regulated in human epithelial cancers. However, the mechanism of miR-221/222 action involved in carcinogenesis has not been extensively studied. Here, we found that reduction of miR-221/222 inhibited cell proliferation and induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human epithelial cancer cells (A549 lung(More)
DNA and chromosome damages in peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated in 151 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde (FA) and 112 non-FA exposed controls. The effects of polymorphisms in three glutathione-S-transferase (GSTs) genes on the DNA and chromosome damages were assessed as well. Alkaline comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus(More)
BACKGROUND MiR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) are frequently up-regulated in various types of human malignancy including glioblastoma. Recent studies have reported that miR-221/222 regulate cell growth and cell cycle progression by targeting p27 and p57. However the underlying mechanism involved in cell survival modulation of miR-221/222 remains elusive. (More)
MiR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222), upregulated in gliomas, can regulate glioma cell cycle progression and apoptosis, respectively. However, the association of miR-221/222 with glioma cell invasion and survival remains unknown. Invasion capability of miR-221/222 was detected by mutiple analyses, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transwell, wound(More)
AIMS MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression is increased in many types of human malignancy, including glioma. Recent studies report that miR-21 regulates cell invasion by targeting RECK, however, the underlying transcriptional regulation of miR-21 in glioma cells remains elusive. RESULTS Here, we identify a positive correlation between miR-21 expression and(More)
In this paper, the new type ginsenosidase which hydrolyzing multi-glycosides of ginsenoside, named ginsenoside type I from Aspergillus sp.g48p strain was isolated, characterized and generally described. The enzyme molecular weight was about 80 kDa. Ginsenosidase type I can hydrolyze different glycoside of protopanaxadiol type ginsenosides (PPD); i.e., can(More)
The miR-221/222 cluster is significantly upregulated in malignant glioma cells and regulates the expression of multiple genes associated with glioma cell proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, which was shown in our previous studies. Cx43 has been identified as a tumor suppressor and major component for the establishment(More)
Ph-3 is the first cloned tomato gene for resistance to late blight and encodes a CC-NBS-LRR protein. Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most destructive diseases in tomato. The resistance (R) gene Ph-3, derived from Solanum pimpinellifolium L3708, provides resistance to multiple P. infestans isolates and has been widely used in(More)