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Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and marijuana activate two well-characterized cannabinoid receptors (CB-Rs), CB1-Rs and CB2-Rs. The expression of CB1-Rs in the brain and periphery has been well studied, but neuronal CB2-Rs have received much less attention than CB1-Rs. Many studies have now identified and characterized functional glial and neuronal CB2-Rs in(More)
Acidification of phagosomes has been proposed to have a key role in the microbicidal function of phagocytes. Here, we show that in alveolar macrophages the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) participates in phagosomal pH control and has bacterial killing capacity. Alveolar macrophages from Cftr-/- mice retained the(More)
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated chloride channel localized at apical cell membranes and exists in macromolecular complexes with a variety of signaling and transporter molecules. Here, we report that the multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), a cAMP transporter, functionally and physically associates with CFTR.(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco smoke contains numerous carcinogens that cause DNA damage, including oxidative lesions that are removed effectively by the base-excision repair (BER) pathway, in which adenosine diphosphate ribosyl transferase (ADPRT), x-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1), and apurinic/apyimidinic endonuclease (APE1) play key roles. Genetic(More)
SUMMARY The Hg-SYV46 parasitism gene is expressed exclusively in the dorsal oesophageal gland cell of parasitic stages of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and it encodes a secretory protein that contains a C-terminal motif of the CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) family in Arabidopsis thaliana. In shoot and floral meristems of Arabidopsis, the stem(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND- Reactive oxygen species serve signaling functions in the vasculature, and hypoxia has been associated with increased reactive oxygen species production. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a reactive oxygen species-producing enzyme that is highly expressed in the endothelium, yet its specific role is unknown. We sought to determine the role of(More)
We reported for the first time the isolation of H9N2 influenza virus from dogs in southern China. Genetic analysis of an isolate revealed that it was a novel genotype closely related to avian H9N2 virus. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated that the new H9N2-subtype virus was the causative agent of a disease in canine. Therefore, an appropriate countermeasure(More)
The expression pattern of pathogenesis-related genes PR-1 to PR-5 was examined in the roots and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants on infection with beet-cyst (Heterodera schachtii) and root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita) nematodes. During H. schachtii parasitism of Arabidopsis, the expression of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-5, which are considered to be markers for(More)
eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) catalyses the conversion of L-arginine into L-citrulline and NO. Evidence has been presented previously that eNOS is associated with the CAT (cationic amino acid transporter)-1 arginine transporter in endothelial caveolae, and it has been proposed that eNOS-CAT-1 association facilitates the delivery of extracellular(More)
Inflammation plays an important role in a wide range of human diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, arteriosclerosis, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, etc. Neutrophilic accumulation in the inflamed tissues is an essential component of normal host defense against infection, but uncontrolled neutrophilic infiltration can cause progressive(More)