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Eukaryotic gene transcription is accompanied by acetylation and methylation of nucleosomes near promoters, but the locations and roles of histone modifications elsewhere in the genome remain unclear. We determined the chromatin modification states in high resolution along 30 Mb of the human genome and found that active promoters are marked by trimethylation(More)
In eukaryotic cells, transcription of every protein-coding gene begins with the assembly of an RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex (PIC) on the promoter. The promoters, in conjunction with enhancers, silencers and insulators, define the combinatorial codes that specify gene expression patterns. Our ability to analyse the control logic encoded in the(More)
To identify somatic mutations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), we performed whole-genome sequencing of DNA from seven DIPGs and matched germline tissue and targeted sequencing of an additional 43 DIPGs and 36 non-brainstem pediatric glioblastomas (non-BS-PGs). We found that 78% of DIPGs and 22% of non-BS-PGs contained a mutation in(More)
PURPOSE To define copy number alterations and gene expression signatures underlying pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG). PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted a high-resolution analysis of genomic imbalances in 78 de novo pediatric HGGs, including seven diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, and 10 HGGs arising in children who received cranial irradiation for a(More)
Overexpression of c-Myc is one of the most common alterations in human cancers, yet it is not clear how this transcription factor acts to promote malignant transformation. To understand the molecular targets of c-Myc function, we have used an unbiased genome-wide location-analysis approach to examine the genomic binding sites of c-Myc in Burkitt's lymphoma(More)
Pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG) is a devastating disease with a less than 20% survival rate 2 years after diagnosis. We analyzed 127 pediatric HGGs, including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and non-brainstem HGGs (NBS-HGGs), by whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. We identified recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1(More)
PURPOSE Long-term survival for children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is less than 10%, and new therapeutic targets are urgently required. We evaluated a large cohort of DIPGs to identify recurrent genomic abnormalities and gene expression signatures underlying DIPG. PATIENTS AND METHODS Single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays were used to(More)
Pediatric osteosarcoma is characterized by multiple somatic chromosomal lesions, including structural variations (SVs) and copy number alterations (CNAs). To define the landscape of somatic mutations in pediatric osteosarcoma, we performed whole-genome sequencing of DNA from 20 osteosarcoma tumor samples and matched normal tissue in a discovery cohort, as(More)
Medulloblastomas that display a large cell/anaplastic morphology and overexpress the cellular c-MYC gene are highly aggressive and carry a very poor prognosis. This so-called MYC-subgroup differs in its histopathology, gene expression profile, and clinical behavior from other forms of medulloblastoma. We generated a mouse model of MYC-subgroup(More)
Mutations in the PTEN, TP53, and RB1 pathways are obligate events in the pathogenesis of human glioblastomas. We induced various combinations of deletions in these tumor suppressors in astrocytes and neural precursors in mature mice, resulting in astrocytomas ranging from grade III to grade IV (glioblastoma). There was selection for mutation of multiple(More)