Single-pulse unilateral electrical stimulation of either the amygdala or the inferior colliculus elicited startle-like responses in chloral hydrate anesthetized rats. EMG responses to intracranial stimulation were recorded from the anterior biceps femoris muscles. The EMG responses were generally enhanced following unilateral tetanic stimulation of the deep… (More)
Fuzzy cognitive map is an approach to knowledge representation and inference that are essential to any intelligent system; it emphasizes the connections of concepts as basic units for storing knowledge, and the structure represents the significance of system. It can be used for designing knowledge base, modeling and controlling complex systems. However,… (More)
We observe less efficient capital allocation in countries whose banking systems are more thoroughly controlled by tycoons or families. The magnitude of this effect is similar to that of state control over banking. Unlike state control, tycoon or family control also correlates with slower economic and productivity growth, greater financial instability, and… (More)
After maternal intake, nicotine crosses the placental barrier and causes severe embryonic disorders and fetal death. In this study, we investigated whether β -carotene has a beneficial effect against nicotine-induced teratogenesis in mouse embryos (embryonic day 8.5) cultured for 48 h in a whole embryo culture system. Embryos exposed to nicotine (1 mM)… (More)
Background: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined topical with intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) versus topical, intravenous TXA alone or control for reducing blood loss after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
Scrotal hyperthermia leads to oxidative stress and apoptosis in spermatogenic cells, which subsequently causes male infertility. In this study, we examined the effects of β-carotene and/or curcumin on heat-stress- (HS-) induced testicular injuries in mice. ICR male mice (8 weeks old) were consecutively treated with β-carotene (10 mg/kg) and/or curcumin (20… (More)
Glucohexaose is a safe farm chemical used for pathogen prevention, which can induce systemic acquired resistance in cucumber. We found that glucohexaose treatment of cucumber plant induced an accumulation of the reactive oxidative species (ROS). Histochemistry showed sharp increases in O2- and H2O2 5 h after glucohexaose treatment. After 5 h, the O2-… (More)