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The exocyst is a large complex that is required for tethering vesicles at the final stages of the exocytic pathway in all eukaryotes. Here we present the structures of the Exo70p subunit of this complex and of the C-terminal domains of Exo84p, at 2.0-A and 2.85-A resolution, respectively. Exo70p forms a 160-A-long rod with a novel fold composed of(More)
The budding of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicles is dependent on the COPII coat complex. Coat assembly is initiated when Sar1-GTP recruits the cargo adaptor complex, Sec23/Sec24, by binding to its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Sec23 (ref. 2). This leads to the capture of transmembrane cargo by Sec24 (refs 3, 4) before the coat is polymerized by(More)
The multimeric membrane-tethering complexes TRAPPI and TRAPPII share seven subunits, of which four (Bet3p, Bet5p, Trs23p, and Trs31p) are minimally needed to activate the Rab GTPase Ypt1p in an event preceding membrane fusion. Here, we present the structure of a heteropentameric TRAPPI assembly complexed with Ypt1p. We propose that TRAPPI facilitates(More)
The Ro 60 kDa autoantigen is a major target of the immune response in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. In vertebrate cells, Ro binds misfolded small RNAs and likely functions in RNA quality control. In eukaryotes and bacteria, Ro also associates with small RNAs called Y RNAs. We present structures of unliganded Ro and Ro complexed with two RNAs(More)
The Ro autoantigen is ring-shaped, binds misfolded noncoding RNAs and is proposed to function in quality control. Here we determine how Ro interacts with misfolded RNAs. Binding of Ro to misfolded precursor (pre)-5S ribosomal RNA requires a single-stranded 3' end and helical elements. As mutating most sequences of the helices and tail results in modest(More)
Besides their well-characterized role as the initiator of adaptive immune responses, dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the induction and maintenance of self-tolerance, the failure of which could lead to autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. Although it is clear that tolerance is a property of DCs at the steady state, the molecular mechanisms(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that β-catenin in DCs serves as a key mediator in promoting both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell tolerance, although how β-catenin exerts its functions remains incompletely understood. Here we report that activation of β-catenin in DCs inhibits cross-priming of CD8(+) T cells by up-regulating mTOR-dependent IL-10, suggesting(More)
Whereas CD8⁺ T cells are essential for anti-tumor immunity, tumors often evade CD8⁺ T cell surveillance by immunosuppression. As the initiators of antigen-specific immune responses, DCs are likely to play a central role in regulating the balance between immunity and tolerance to tumor antigens and are specialized in their ability to cross-present exogenous(More)
As the initiators of antigen-specific immune responses, dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in regulating the balance between CD8 T-cell immunity and tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). The tumor microenvironment often recruits immunosuppressive cells and releases soluble factors that attenuate the activity of DCs, such as vascular(More)
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