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The chronic infections related to biofilm and intracellular bacteria are always hard to be cured because of their inherent resistance to both antimicrobial agents and host defenses. Herein we develop a facile approach to overcome the above conundrum through phosphatidylcholine-decorated Au nanoparticles loaded with gentamicin (GPA NPs). The nanoparticles(More)
Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a new concept appeared in recent years. Despite growing interests of research on ICD, the circumstances that trigger immune responses against dying tumor cells remain largely unknown. It was demonstrated that recombinant Clostridium difficile toxin B (rTcdB) can induce ICD in intoxicated cells, but its mechanism remains(More)
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the main cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea prevailing in hospital settings. In the past decade, the morbidity and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased significantly due to the emergence of hypervirulent strains. Toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), the two exotoxins of C. difficile, are the(More)
Clostridium difficile is the main cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis in humans and animals. Its pathogenicity is primarily linked to the secretion of two exotoxins (TcdA and TcdB). Although great progress in the toxic mechanism of TcdA and TcdB has been achieved, there are many conflicting reports about the apoptotic(More)
Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are the major virulence factors involved in C. difficile-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. TcdA and TcdB both contain at least four distinct domains: the glucosyltransferase domain, cysteine protease domain, receptor binding domain, and translocation domain. Few studies have(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming and Gram-positive bacillus. It is the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea prevailing in hospital settings. The morbidity and mortality of C. difficile infection (CDI) has increased significantly due to the emergence of hypervirulent strains. Because of the poor clinical different(More)
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is considered to be the major cause of the antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis in animals and humans. The prevalence of C. difficile infections (CDI) has been increasing since 2000. Two exotoxins of C. difficile, Toxin A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB), are the main virulence factors of CDI, which can(More)
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