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During protein synthesis, the ribosome translates nucleotide triplets in single-stranded mRNA into polypeptide sequences. Strong downstream mRNA secondary structures, which must be unfolded for translation, can slow or even halt protein synthesis. Here we used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to determine reaction rates for specific(More)
Hybridization of nucleic acids with secondary structure is involved in many biological processes and technological applications. To gain more insight into its mechanism, we have investigated the kinetics of DNA hybridization/denaturation via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on perfectly matched and single-base-mismatched DNA strands. DNA(More)
Recordings from single molecule experiments can be aggregated to determine average kinetic properties of the system under observation. The kinetics after a synchronized reaction step can be interpreted using all of the standard tools developed for ensemble perturbation experiments. The kinetics leading up to a synchronized event, determined by the lifetimes(More)
The G-protein EF-Tu, which undergoes a major conformational change when EF-Tu·GTP is converted to EF-Tu·GDP, forms part of an aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex (TC) that accelerates the binding of aa-tRNA to the ribosome during peptide elongation. Such binding, placing a portion of EF-Tu in contact with the GTPase Associated Center (GAC), is(More)
We present proof-of-concept in vitro results demonstrating the feasibility of using single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements to distinguish, in real time, between individual ribosomes programmed with several different, short mRNAs. For these measurements we use either the FRET signal generated between two tRNAs labeled(More)
Hybridization of single-stranded DNA immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) into double stranded DNA and its subsequent dissociation into ssDNA were investigated. Melting curves and rates of dissociation and hybridization were measured using fluorescence detection based on hybridization-induced fluorescence change. Two distribution(More)
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considered to be a typical condition of glucose intolerance in which a woman previously undiagnosed with diabetes exhibits high levels of blood glucose during the third trimester of pregnancy. It can hence be defined as any degree of intolerance to glucose with its first recognition only during the pregnancy.(More)
We present a flexible, real-time-coupled transcription-translation assay that involves the continuous monitoring of fluorescent Emerald GFP formation. Along with numerical simulation of a reaction kinetics model, the assay permits quantitative estimation of the effects on full-length protein synthesis of various additions, subtractions or substitutions to(More)
The T cell receptor (TCR)-cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) signaling complex plays an important role in initiation of adaptive immune responses, but weak interactions have obstructed delineation of the individual TCR-CD3 subunit interactions during T cell signaling. Here, we demonstrate that unnatural amino acids (UAA) can be used to photo-cross-link(More)
During the translocation step of prokaryotic protein synthesis, elongation factor G (EF-G), a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), binds to the ribosomal PRE-translocation (PRE) complex and facilitates movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNA (mRNA) by one codon. Energy liberated by EF-G's GTPase activity is necessary for EF-G to catalyze rapid and(More)