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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy (SN) is the most common neurological complication of HIV infection in the current highly active antiretroviral therapy era. The painful sensory neuropathy is associated with the use of dideoxynucleoside antiretrovirals, and its development limits the choice of antiretroviral drugs in affected(More)
Clinically relevant peripheral neuropathies (such as diabetic and human immunodeficiency virus sensory neuropathies) are characterized by distal axonal degeneration, rather than neuronal death. Here, we describe a novel, endogenous pathway that prevents axonal degeneration. We show that in response to axonal injury, periaxonal Schwann cells release(More)
The role of pathway-derived growth factors in the support of peripheral axon regeneration remains elusive. Few appropriate knock-out mice are available, and gene silencing techniques are rarely 100% effective. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed an in vitro organotypic co-culture system that accurately models peripheral nerve repair in the(More)
Carotenoids in the peel and the flesh of persimmon fruit were identified, and the contents of carotenoids in the fleshes of 46 different persimmon cultivars were analyzed. The results indicated that 31 specific carotenoids were detected in both cultivars of persimmons, among which nine specific carotenoids were characterized. β-cryptoxanthin was the most(More)
Laparoscopic repair (LR) for perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has been introduced since 1990. Although many studies comparing LR with open repair (OR) have been published, controversy remains regarding the clinical utility of laparoscopic techniques for the treatment of PPU. Thus, it is necessary for us to broaden our knowledge on this subject with the newly(More)
Flavonoids and phenolics are abundant in loquat flowers. Methanol had the highest extraction efficiency among five solvents, followed by ethanol. Considering the safety and residue, ethanol is better as extraction solvent. The average content of flavonoids and phenolics of loquat flower of five cultivars were 1.59 ± 0.24 and 7.86 ± 0.87 mg/g DW,(More)
Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are important bioactive components in many plants, including persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.). The present work was carried out to determine OA and UA contents in the flesh of persimmon fruit from 32 cultivars, including 23 astringent and 9 non-astringent ones, by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)(More)
Changes in cytokine and chemokine expression during Wallerian degeneration have been studied using nerve transection models, which result in denervation of both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells. Cytokine and chemokine response of non-myelinating Remak Schwann cells to loss of their axons is unknown. In this study, we compared the expression(More)
Analysis of observational data suggests two-way interactions between the tropical intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and synoptic-scale variability (SSV). On one hand, SSV is strongly modulated by the ISO; that is, a strengthened (weakened) SSV appears during the enhanced (suppressed) ISO phase. The northwest– southeast-oriented synoptic wave train is(More)