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Interest in protecting ecological areas is increasing because of land uses conflicts and environmental pressures. The optimal zoning of protected ecological areas belongs to a NP-hard problem because it is subject to both box and spatial constraints. A challenge in solving area optimization problems emerges with the increasing size of a study region. In(More)
Optimal zoning of protected natural areas is important for conserving ecosystems. It is an NP-hard problem which is difficult to solve by using common geographic information system (GIS) functions. Another problem is that existing optimization methods ignore potential land-use dynamics in formulating optimal patterns. This article has developed a new method(More)
Ecological security has become a major issue under fast urbanization in China. As the first two cities in this country, Shenzhen and Dongguan issued the ordinance of Eco-designated Line of Control (ELC) to "wire" ecologically important areas for strict protection in 2005 and 2009 respectively. Early warning systems (EWS) are a useful tool for assisting the(More)
Frequency and severity of droughts were projected to increase in many regions. However, their effects of temporal dynamics on the terrestrial carbon cycle remain uncertain, and hence deserve further investigation. In this paper, the droughts that occurred in China during 2001-2010 were identified by using the standardized precipitation index (SPI).(More)
Urban land development alters landscapes and carbon cycle, especially net primary productivity (NPP). Despite projections that NPP is often reduced by urbanization, little is known about NPP changes under future urban expansion and climate change conditions. In this paper, terrestrial NPP was calculated by using Biome-BGC model. However, this model does not(More)
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