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Optimal zoning of protected natural areas is important for conserving ecosystems. It is an NP-hard problem which is difficult to solve by using common geographic information system (GIS) functions. Another problem is that existing optimization methods ignore potential land-use dynamics in formulating optimal patterns. This article has developed a new method(More)
Interest in protecting ecological areas is increasing because of land uses conflicts and environmental pressures. The optimal zoning of protected ecological areas belongs to a NP-hard problem because it is subject to both box and spatial constraints. A challenge in solving area optimization problems emerges with the increasing size of a study region. In(More)
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