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Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in plastic products, through which humans are exposed to it. Accumulating evidence suggests that BPA exposure is associated with β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial defects can cause impairment and failure of β cells, but there is little information about the effects of BPA on the mitochondrial function of β cells. In this(More)
OBJECTIVES Dendritic cells (DCs) can inhibit immune response by clonal anergy when immature. Recent studies have shown that immature DCs (iDCs) may serve as a live cell vaccine after specific antigen pulse based on its potential of blocking antibody production. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of nuclear antigen-pulsed iDCs in the(More)
Anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies have been indicated to play a major role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN), which is characterized by mesangial alterations, including phenotypic changes. To explore the effects of anti-dsDNA antibodies on the phenotype of mesangial cells (MCs), the anti-dsDNA IgG in sera and histological features of(More)
Anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) IgG causes renal damage in patients with lupus nephritis by cross-reacting with multiple autoantigens, including alpha-actinin-4, in mesangial cells (MCs). However, how the cross-reactions play a role in mesangial phenotypic abnormalities is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of the fragment(More)
Bacillus subtilis is popularly used as a probiotic in many fields. Although recent research has found that some secondary metabolites of B. subtilis could cause hemolysis, the hemolytic mechanism in B. subtilis is still unclear. In this paper, the hemolysis-associated gene ytjA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the hemolytic activity of the(More)
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