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COVID-19 patients upregulate toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling that mimics bacterial sepsis
TLDR
It is reported here that toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-mediated inflammatory signaling molecules are upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COVID-19 patients, compared with healthy controls.
High Expression Hampers Horizontal Gene Transfer
TLDR
The gene expression level is established as a major determinant of horizontal gene transferability and is suggested that most successful HGTs are initially slightly deleterious, fixed because of their negligibly low costs rather than high benefits to the recipient.
Strong purifying selection at genes escaping X chromosome inactivation.
TLDR
It is found that escape genes are subject to stronger purifying selection than inactivated genes and that positive selection does not significantly affect the evolution of these genes.
The KRAB zinc finger protein ZFP809 is required to initiate epigenetic silencing of endogenous retroviruses.
TLDR
Evidence is provided that ZFP809 evolved to recognize foreign DNA and establish histone modification-based epigenetic silencing of ERVs, which is required to initiate ERV silencing during embryonic development but becomes largely dispensable in somatic tissues.
Genomic Environment Predicts Expression Patterns on the Human Inactive X Chromosome
TLDR
The results strongly support the role of L1s in X inactivation, yet indicate that a chromatin microenvironment composed of multiple genomic sequence elements determines expression status of X chromosome genes.
Genomic evidence for elevated mutation rates in highly expressed genes
TLDR
Compared genomics of related species as well as mutation accumulation lines, it is shown in yeast that the rate of point mutation in a gene increases with the expression level of the gene.
Mitogenomic phylogeny of Acanthocephala reveals novel Class relationships
TLDR
Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences for 12 protein‐coding genes with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods supported monophyly of Acanthocephala, contradicting morphology‐based classification systems and inconsistent with nuclear rDNA‐based molecular hypotheses that suggest non‐monophyly.
Functional Diversification of Motor Neuron-specific Isl1 Enhancers during Evolution
TLDR
It is reported that transcription of Isl1, a major gene necessary for motor neuron identity, is controlled by two enhancers, CREST1 (E1) and CREST2 (E2) that allow selective gene expression of IsL1 in motor neurons.
Differential requirements for mRNA folding partially explain why highly expressed proteins evolve slowly
TLDR
It is proposed and demonstrated that a requirement for stronger folding of more abundant mRNAs results in slower evolution of more highly expressed genes and proteins, and a previously unrecognized and unexpected form of nonprotein-level selection that impacts dN/dS is revealed.
Genome-wide evolutionary conservation of N-glycosylation sites.
TLDR
Examining a large set of experimentally determined mouse N-glycosylation sites, it is found that the evolutionary rate of glycosylated asparagines is significantly lower than that of nonglycosylations of the same proteins, suggesting that the above substitution rate difference is related to gly cosylation.
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