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Cell-directed changes in the ligand-binding affinity ('activation') of integrins regulate cell adhesion and migration, extracellular matrix assembly and mechanotransduction, thereby contributing to embryonic development and diseases such as atherothrombosis and cancer. Integrin activation comprises triggering events, intermediate signalling events and,(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is required for ubiquitin-mediated destruction of numerous proteins. ERAD occurs by processes on both sides of the ER membrane, including lumenal substrate scanning and cytosolic destruction by the proteasome. The ER resident membrane proteins Hrd1p and Hrd3p play central roles in ERAD. We show that(More)
Heterodimeric integrin adhesion receptors regulate cell migration, survival and differentiation in metazoa by communicating signals bi-directionally across the plasma membrane. Protein engineering and mutagenesis studies have suggested that the dissociation of a complex formed by the single-pass transmembrane (TM) segments of the alpha and beta subunits is(More)
Fundamental to cell adhesion and migration, integrins are large heterodimeric membrane proteins that uniquely mediate inside-out signal transduction, whereby adhesion to the extracellular matrix is activated from within the cell by direct binding of talin to the cytoplasmic tail of the beta integrin subunit. Here, we report the first structure of talin(More)
Regulation of cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction is essential for the normal physiology of metazoans and is important in many diseases. Integrin adhesion receptors can rapidly increase their affinity (integrin activation) in response to intracellular signaling events in a process termed inside-out signaling. The transmembrane domains of integrins and(More)
Clustering and occupancy of platelet integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) (GPIIb-IIIa) generate biologically important signals: conversely, intracellular signals increase the integrins' affinity, leading to integrin activation; both forms of integrin signaling play important roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. Indirect evidence implicates interactions between(More)
Talin binding to integrin β tails increases ligand binding affinity (activation). Changes in β transmembrane domain (TMD) topology that disrupt α-β TMD interactions are proposed to mediate integrin activation. In this paper, we used membrane-embedded integrin β3 TMDs bearing environmentally sensitive fluorophores at inner or outer membrane water interfaces(More)
The cyclical protrusion and retraction of the leading edge is a hallmark of many migrating cells involved in processes such as development, inflammation and tumorigenesis. The molecular identity of the signalling mechanisms that control these cycles has remained unknown. Here, we used live-cell imaging of biosensors to monitor spontaneous morphodynamic and(More)
In mammals, beta1 integrin adhesion receptors generate signals that mediate cell spreading, migration, proliferation, and survival. CD98, a heterodimeric transmembrane protein, physically associates with certain integrin beta subunit cytoplasmic domains (tails) via its heavy chain, CD98hc (SLC3A2), and loss of CD98hc impairs integrin signaling. Here we have(More)
Epithin is a type II transmembrane serine protease that exists in a soluble and membrane-bound form. Shedding is thought to be important in regulating its action, but little is known regarding the intracellular events that trigger such shedding. Here, we show that phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) causes the release of epithin. It also causes accumulation of(More)