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Seeds were collected from locally and naturally grown Chinese tallow trees (CTT) and characterized for general physical and chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the lipids. The effects of four different solvents (petroleum ether, hexane, diethyl ether, and 95 % ethanol) and two extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2) and(More)
Spent chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood was liquefied in polyethylene glycol 400/glycerin (2:1 w/w). Sulfuric acid (95-98%) and ferrous salts (FeSO, .7H,O or FeCI2.4H,O) were used as catalysts and additives , respectively. The resulting liquefied CCA-treated wood was diluted with aqueous solvents and was then mixed with complexion/precipitation(More)
Novolac type liquefied wood/phenol/formalde-hyde (LWPF) resins were synthesized from liquefied wood and formaldehyde. The average molecular weight of the LWPF resin made from the liquefied wood reacted in an atmospheric three neck flask increased with increasing P/W ratio. However, it decreased with increasing phenol/wood ratio when using a sealed Parr(More)
For the development of a cost-effective melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin (MUF), the study evaluated the effects of reaction pH and melamine content on resin properties and bond performance of the MUF resin adhesive systems. Eight resins, each with three replicates, were prepared in a factorial experiment that included two formulation variables: two(More)
A test method for measuring formaldehyde from urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins at high temperature was developed and used to assess the influence of the reaction pH on the formaldehyde emission and heat stability of the cured resins. Additionally, solid-state 13C CP/MAS miclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to investigate the structure of cured(More)
Wood liquefaction was conducted at a 2/1 phenol/wood ratio in two different reactors: (1) an atmospheric three-necked flask reactor and (2) a sealed Parr reactor. The liquefied wood mixture (liquefied wood, unreacted phenol, and wood residue) was further condensed with formaldehyde under acidic conditions to synthesize two novolac-type liquefied(More)
The brown-rotted wood was liquefied in phenol with phosphoric acid as catalyst and the resulting liquefied products were condensed with formaldehyde to yield novolak liquefied wood-based phenol formaldehyde resin (LWPF). The results showed that brown-rotted wood could be more easily liquefied than sound wood in phenol. The residue content of liquefied wood(More)
'Ien resins, each with two replicates, were formulated from soy flour hydrolyzates and prepared with two hydrolyzation variables: phenol-to-soy flour ratios (w/w) of 4/4,3/4,2/4, l/4, and O/4 and sodium hydrox-ide-to-soy flour ratios (w/w) of 0.39 and 0.78. In addition , two commercially available phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins were used in the study as(More)
A limited initial study was made to evaluate liquefac-tion of creosote-treated southern pine wood sawdust with liquefaction of birch wood powder as a control. The objective was to assess the feasibility of using creo-_.. _. sot&treated southern pine wood as a raw material for the-formulation-of-phenol-basedresmadhesives-Them liquefaction was conducted in(More)
Liquefaction of sawdust was studied in methanol−water solutions using an acid catalyst under microwave energy. The effect of the methanol concentration on the changes of components in the liquefied products was analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS). It was found that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid are the dominate(More)