Chung-Shien Wu

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Phylogenetic relationships among the 5 groups of extant seed plants are presently unsettled. To reexamine this long-standing debate, we determine the complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) of Cycas taitungensis and 56 protein-coding genes encoded in the cpDNA of Gnetum parvifolium. The cpDNA of Cycas is a circular molecule of 163,403 bp with 2 typical large(More)
The relationships among the extant five gymnosperm groups--gnetophytes, Pinaceae, non-Pinaceae conifers (cupressophytes), Ginkgo, and cycads--remain equivocal. To clarify this issue, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs) from two cupressophytes, Cephalotaxus wilsoniana and Taiwania cryptomerioides, and 53 common chloroplast protein-coding genes from(More)
As the largest and the basal-most family of conifers, Pinaceae provides key insights into the evolutionary history of conifers. We present comparative chloroplast genomics and analysis of concatenated 49 chloroplast protein-coding genes common to 19 gymnosperms, including 15 species from 8 Pinaceous genera, to address the long-standing controversy about(More)
The cpDNA of Welwitschia mirabilis (the only species of Welwitschiales) was recently reported to be the most reduced and compact among photosynthetic land plants. However, cpDNAs of the other two gnetophyte lineages (viz. Ephedrales and Gnetales) have not yet been studied. It remains unclear what underlining mechanisms have downsized the cpDNA. To pin down(More)
Although conifers are of immense ecological and economic value, bioengineering of their chloroplasts remains undeveloped. Understanding the chloroplast genomic organization of conifers can facilitate their bioengineering. Members of the conifer II clade (or cupressophytes) are highly diverse in both morphologic features and chloroplast genomic organization.(More)
We determined the complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) of Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo), the only relict of ginkgophytes from the Triassic Period. The cpDNA molecule of ginkgo is quadripartite and circular, with a length of 156,945 bp, which is 6,458 bp shorter than that of Cycas taitungensis. In ginkgo cpDNA, rpl23 becomes pseudo, only one copy of(More)
Pinaceae, the largest family of conifers, has diversified organizations of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs) with the two typical inverted repeats (IRs) highly reduced. To unravel the mechanism of this genomic diversification, we examined the cpDNA organizations from 53 species of the ten Pinaceous genera, including those of Larix decidua (122,474 bp), Picea(More)
With the completion of the first gymnosperm mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) from Cycas taitungensis and the availability of more mtDNA taxa in the past 5 years, we have conducted a systematic analysis of DNA transfer from chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs) to mtDNAs (mtpts) in 11 plants, including 2 algae, 1 liverwort, 1 moss, 1 gymnosperm, 3 monocots, and 3(More)
Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such(More)
In angiosperms, gene conversion has been known to reduce the mutational load of plastid genomes (the plastomes). Particularly, more frequent gene conversions in inverted repeat (IR) than in single copy (SC) regions result in contrasting substitution rates between these two regions. However, little has been known about the effect of gene conversion in the(More)