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Ciliary beating and metachronal waves are fundamental to effective mucociliary transport. The ciliary beat frequencies (CBFs) and metachronal wave directions of multiple cilia beating in culture media were measured simultaneously using digital microscopic images. The degree of synchronisation between ciliary beats was determined by the correlation between(More)
Investigations evaluating the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) on gentamicin (GM) ototoxicity were undertaken. Guinea pigs treated with 5 mg/kg gentamicin sulfate on the round window niche (RWN) showed acute changes on electrocochleogram and hair cell or microvilli damage on scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was accumulation of GM in(More)
Isolated pleural effusion, so called primary pleural effusion denotes a pleural effusion without documented etiology such as a cardiac, inflammatory, iatrogenic problem or fetal hydrops. Chromosomal anomaly such as Down syndrome may be associated with isolated pleural effusion. The content of the isolated pleural effusion is mostly chylous, and isolated(More)
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