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Evoked potential and ensemble neuronal activities were used to study the responses of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) to noxious CO(2) laser irradiation of the middle part of the tail in conscious behaving rats. The hypothesis that systemic morphine treatment preferentially attenuates the longer-latency laser-evoked cortical responses was also tested.(More)
In this study, we investigated single-unit responses of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to noxious stimulation of the tail of the rat. The influences of morphine on these nociceptive responses were also compared. Multiple single-unit activities were recorded from two eight-channel microwire arrays chronically(More)
Primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is a key area in the processing of nociceptor inputs to our consciousness. To clarify the columnar and laminar organization of SI for pain processing, we compared spatiotemporal changes in neuronal activities of the primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) of the rat in response to noxious laser heat stimulation applied to the(More)
Several clinical and animal studies of different pain models reported that motor cortex stimulation (MCS) has an antinociceptive effect. In our previous study, the response of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) to peripheral stimuli decreased after MCS. The aim of the present study was to investigate involvement of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in this(More)
The present study examined the role of neurons in different pain-related functions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and primary sensorimotor cortex (SmI) by assessing their abilities to code different levels of noxious heat and activity changes evoked by classical fear conditioning involving electric shocks. Multiple single-unit activity was recorded(More)
The amygdala is important in higher-level control of cardiovascular functions. In this study, we compared cardiovascular-related projections among the subnuclei of the amygdala. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the central, medial, and basolateral nuclei of the amygdala, and the distributions and densities of anterograde-labeled terminal boutons(More)
In the West, the use of the methods of alternative medicine, including meditation, has been on the rise. In the US, Kabat-Zinn and associates have pioneered the extensive use of mindfulness meditation (MM) for the treatment of people facing pain and illness. Among the essentials of MM is the observation of bodily sensations, including pain. In Taiwan,(More)
Stimulation of the amygdala is known to produce pressor, depressor, or has no effects. The present study was performed to test whether amygdala cardiovascular effects are influenced by consciousness states and by different types of anesthetics. Adult rats were set up for stimulation amygdala and measurement of blood pressure in a chronic preparation. After(More)
Accurately sorting individual neurons is a technical challenge and plays an important role in identifying information flow among neurons. Spike sorting errors are almost unavoidable and can roughly be divided into two types: false positives (FPs) and false negatives (FNs). This study investigates how FPs and FNs affect results of the Granger causality (GC)(More)