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In this paper, we present a survey on management mechanisms used for ensuring the Quality-of-Services for Voice-over-IP applications. We first address the motivations of QoS management for VoIP. We then partition the system into two management planes: data plane and control plane, and describe mechanisms in each plane respectively. In data plane, we cover(More)
In 2004, H9N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from pigs with respiratory syndrome in commercial swine farms in Henan province, China. Antigenic and genetic characterization were performed for seven swine H9N2 influenza viruses. The hemagglutinin antigenicity of swine H9N2 viruses was similar to those of avian H9N2 viruses of A/duck/Hong Kong/Y280/1997(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has only a single serotype but diversified genotypes. Genotype VII strains are the prevalent currently circulating genotype worldwide, and in particular, these strains cause outbreaks in waterfowl. In this study, a reverse genetics system for highly virulent NDV isolated from goose flocks was developed independent of(More)
Liver transplantation is considered as the most effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, serious complications still exist, particularly in two aspects: ischemia and subsequent reperfusion of the liver, causing postoperative hepatic dysfunction and even failure; and acute and chronic graft rejections, affecting the allograft survival. Heme(More)
BACKGROUND Human-like H3N2 influenza viruses have repeatedly been transmitted to domestic pigs in different regions of the world, but it is still uncertain whether any of these variants could become established in pig populations. The fact that different subtypes of influenza viruses have been detected in pigs makes them an ideal candidate for the genesis(More)
Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has caused the swine industry significant health challenges and economic damage. Although inactivated and subunit vaccines against PMWS have been used widely, so far no DNA vaccine is available. In this study, with the aim of exploring a new route for(More)
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Multiple genotypes of NDV have been circulating worldwide and NDV is continuously evolving, resulting into more diversity. Of multiple viral genotypes, VII is particularly important given that it had been associated with most recent ND outbreaks(More)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer that shows a high mortality and increasing incidence. There are numerous successful treatment options for CRC, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy; however, their side effects and limitations are considerable. Probiotics may be an effective strategy for(More)
The H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) has become increasingly concerning due to its role in severe economic losses in the poultry industry. Transmission of AIV to mammals, including pigs and humans, has accelerated efforts to devise preventive strategies. To develop an effective oral vaccine against H9N2 AIV, a recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 strain(More)
Eimeria spp. are the causative agents of coccidiosis, a major disease affecting the poultry industry. A recombinant non-antibiotic Escherichia coli that expresses the Eimeria tenella SO7 gene was constructed and its protective efficacy against homologous infection in chickens was determined. The three-day-old chickens were orally immunized with the(More)