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Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from Inula helenium was studied. Effects of ethanol concentration, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio, and number of extractions were investigated. An orthogonal array was constructed to optimize UAE process. The optimized extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 30%;(More)
The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of visual affective priming. Eighteen young native English-speakers (6 males, 12 females) participated in the study. Two sets of 720 prime-target pairs (240 affectively congruent, 240 affectively incongruent, and 240 neutral) used either words or pictures(More)
Repetition of visually common objects was examined in relation to prior intentional learning and memory status using a delayed match-to-sample task in humans. Both response time and two temporally separate event-related potential (ERP) components indexed repetition. The early repetition effect ( approximately 200-550 ms) evoked more ERP responses for(More)
The present study examined the relationship between word concreteness and word frequency using event-related potential (ERP) measurements during a lexical decision task. Potential effects of concreteness in the processing of verbs were also examined. ERPs were recorded from 119 scalp electrodes in 23 right-handed participants. The results showed that(More)
The vast majority of decision-making research is performed under the assumption of the value maximizing principle. This principle implies that when making decisions, individuals try to optimize outcomes on the basis of cold mathematical equations. However, decisions are emotion-laden rather than cool and analytic when they tap into life-threatening(More)
Reactive oxygen species are constantly produced in aerobic organisms as by-products of normal oxygen metabolism and include free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2 (-)) and hydroxyl radical (OH(-)), and non-radical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The mitochondrial respiratory chain and enzymatic reactions by various enzymes are endogenous sources of reactive(More)
The ability to put a name to a face is a vital aspect of human interaction, but many people find this extremely difficult, especially after being introduced to someone for the first time. Creating enduring associations between arbitrary stimuli in this manner is also a prime example of what patients with amnesia find most difficult. To help develop a better(More)
Memory encoding can be studied by monitoring brain activity correlated with subsequent remembering. To understand brain potentials associated with encoding, we compared multiple factors known to affect encoding. Depth of processing was manipulated by requiring subjects to detect animal names (deep encoding) or boldface (shallow encoding) in a series of(More)
Vivid memory for an episode generally includes memory for a central object or event plus memory for background context or source information. To assess neural differences between source and item memory, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to monitor relevant memory processes at both encoding and retrieval. Participants fluent in Chinese studied Chinese(More)
Previous event-related potentials (ERPs) research has suggested that the retrieval tasks for many sources of items were operated in the frontal regions, but Cycowicz et al. [2-4,6] recorded the late posterior negativity (LPN), a component over the posterior cortex, in retrieving the associative color sources of pictures. To examine whether the LPN could(More)