Chun-ming Chai

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A study was undertaken of the role of osmotoxicity in gadolinium (Gd) and iodine contrast media (CM) nephrotoxicity in ischemic porcine kidneys. Test solutions: mannitol iso-osmotic to 0.5 M gadopentetate (1.96 Osm/kg H2O), 0.5 M gadodiamide (0.78 Osm/kg H2O) and 0.5 M iohexol (190 mg I/ml, 0.42 Osm/kg H2O). Each solution was injected [3 ml/kg body weight(More)
The evolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been astounding since the early 1980s, and a broad range of applications has emerged. To date, clinical imaging of nuclei other than protons has been precluded for reasons of sensitivity. However, with the recent development of hyperpolarization techniques, the signal from a given number of nuclei can be(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To investigate in a unilaterally nephrectomized porcine model whether gadolinium contrast media (Gd-CM) are less nephrotoxic than iodine media (I-CM) in x-ray arteriography of a kidney made temporarily ischemic by arterial balloon occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a noncrossover design, 3 mL of each test solution were injected(More)
A new diagnostic application of a water-soluble contrast medium (CM) based on the hyperpolarization of a 13C substance is introduced. The degree of polarization achieved is >30%, which is about a factor of 10(5) higher than the thermal equilibrium polarization level at 1.5 T. Imaging of hyperpolarized (HP) CM during a cardiac interventional MRI procedure(More)
In order to simplify and/or improve determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) the clearances of iohexol, 51Cr-EDTA and endogenous creatinine were simultaneously determined with different techniques in 21 anesthetized landrace pigs. Their GFR had been reduced to about 1/3 or less of normal GFR. After an intravenous bolus of the GFR markers, their(More)
IGF2 is known to affect the normal development and pathology of the cardiovascular system. We previously created mutant mice with targeted expression of an Igf2 transgene in the smooth muscle cells and showed that these mice spontaneously develop aortic intimal cushions. In the present work, we provide a general description of the phenotype of two(More)
Pyruvate is included in the energy production of the heart muscle and is metabolized into lactate, alanine, and CO(2) in equilibrium with HCO(3) (-). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using (13)C hyperpolarization enhanced MRI to monitor pyruvate metabolism in the heart during an ischemic episode. The left circumflex artery of pigs (4(More)
PURPOSE To prospectively compare nephrotoxicity and radiodensity of plasma hyperosmotic gadolinium chelates (attenuation-osmotic ratio of 1:1) with those of plasma iso-osmotic iodine-based contrast media (attenuation-osmotic ratio of 3:1 or 6:1) after renal arteriography in ischemic porcine kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS The local animal care committee(More)
BACKGROUND Gadolinium contrast media (Gd-CM) are regarded as non-nephrotoxic or considerably less nephrotoxic than iodine contrast media (I-CM), and have therefore come to be used as a substitute for I-CM in patients with renal insufficiency in a variety of radiographic examinations. PURPOSE To investigate renal histomorphological changes caused by Gd-CM(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES We wanted to improve determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with plasma clearance techniques because the alternative-renal clearance techniques-may involve inaccurate urine sampling or risk of urinary tract infection when bladder catheterization becomes necessary. Therefore, we compared the renal and plasma clearances(More)