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BACKGROUND The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000-30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is(More)
BACKGROUND Resveratrol have been known to possess many pharmacological properties including antioxidant, cardioprotective and anticancer effects. Although current studies indicate that resveratrol produces neuroprotection against neurological disorders, the precise mechanisms for its beneficial effects are still not fully understood. We investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND The emergence of agriculture about 10,000 years ago marks a dramatic change in human evolutionary history. The diet shift in agriculture societies might have a great impact on the genetic makeup of Neolithic human populations. The regionally restricted enrichment of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase sequence polymorphism (ADH1BArg47His) in(More)
The greater Himalayan region demarcates two of the most prominent linguistic phyla in Asia: Tibeto-Burman and Indo-European. Previous genetic surveys, mainly using Y-chromosome polymorphisms and/or mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms suggested a substantially reduced geneflow between populations belonging to these two phyla. These studies, however, have mainly(More)
Several studies indicate that plasma adiponectin levels are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or T2DM risk factors in diverse populations. In addition to the adiponectin gene, several other genes have been postulated to influence plasma adiponectin levels. In this study, we investigated two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),(More)
Graves' disease (GD) is a leading cause of hyperthyroidism, which affects 1.0-1.6% of the general population. Previous studies reported a higher GD prevalence in Asian populations compared to Caucasian populations. The etiology of GD involves complex interactions between predisposing genes and environmental triggers. Genetic studies have shown that the(More)
The origin of new exons is an important mechanism for proteome diversity. Here, we report the recurrent origination of new exons in mammalian chromodomain Y-like (CDYL) genes and the functional consequences associated with the acquisition of the new exons. Driven by positive selection, the newly evolved longer peptide exhibits weaker transcription(More)
BACKGROUND The development of rapid and safe antidepressants for the treatment of major depression is in urgent demand. Converging evidence suggests that glutamatergic signaling seems to play important roles in the pathophysiology of depression. METHODS We studied the antidepressant effects of 3(')-deoxyadenosine (3'-dA, Cordycepin) and the critical role(More)
Lentinan (LNT) is an immune regulator and its potential and mechanism for the treatment of mood disorder is of our interest. Dectin-1 is a β-glucan (including LNT) receptor that regulates immune functions in many immune cell types. Cumulative evidence has suggested that the glutamatergic system seems to play an important role in the treatment of depression.(More)
Proteo-β-glucan from Maitake (PGM) is a strong immune regulator, and its receptor is called Dectin-1. Cumulative evidence suggests that AMPA receptors are important for the treatment of depression. Here, we report that PGM treatment leads to a significant antidepressant effect in the tail suspension test and forced swim test after sixty minutes of treatment(More)