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Nitric oxide regulates cartilage destruction by causing dedifferentiation and apoptosis of chondrocytes. We investigated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase subtypes, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-1/2, and p38 kinase in NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit articular chondrocytes and their involvement in dedifferentiation.(More)
beta-Catenin regulates important biological processes, including embryonic development and tumorigenesis. We have investigated the role of beta-catenin in the regulation of the chondrocyte phenotype. Expression of beta-catenin was high in prechondrogenic mesenchymal cells, but significantly decreased in differentiated chondrocytes both in vivo and in vitro.(More)
The differentiated phenotype of chondrocyte is rapidly lost during in vitro culture by a process designated "dedifferentiation." In this study, we investigate the roles of protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in the maintenance of the differentiated chondrocyte phenotype. Chondrocytes isolated from rabbit articular(More)
In articular chondrocytes, nitric oxide (NO) production triggers dedifferentiation and apoptotic cell death that is regulated by the converse functions of two mitogen-activated protein kinase subtypes, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 kinase. Since protein kinase C (PKC) transduces signals that influence differentiation, survival, and(More)
Cartilage development is initiated by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes. Differentiated chondrocytes in articular cartilage undergo dedifferentiation and apoptosis during arthritis, in which NO production plays a critical role. Here, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of action of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is a well-known regulator of chondrocyte phenotype. RA inhibits chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells and also causes loss of differentiated chondrocyte phenotype. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying RA regulation of chondrogenesis. RA treatment in chondrifying mesenchymal cells did not affect precartilage(More)
Because miR-146a expression in articular chondrocytes is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), we assessed whether miR-146a is linked to cartilage degeneration in the spine. Monolayer cultures of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells from the intervertebral discs (IVD) of bovine tails were transfected with a miR-146a mimic. To provoke inflammatory responses and(More)
BACKGROUND Our previous work has provided strong evidence that the transcription factor SOX9 is completely needed for chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage formation acting as a "master switch" in this differentiation. Heterozygous mutations in SOX9 cause campomelic dysplasia, a severe skeletal dysmorphology syndrome in humans characterized by a(More)
Limb development constitutes a central model for the study of tissue and organ patterning; yet, the mechanisms that regulate the patterning of limb vasculature have been left understudied. Vascular patterning in the forming limb is tightly regulated in order to ensure sufficient gas exchange and nutrient supply to the developing organ. Once skeletogenesis(More)
The transcription factor SOX9 plays an essential role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a master factor in regulation of chondrocyte development. Our aim was to determine which genes in the genome of chondrocytes are either directly or indirectly controlled by SOX9. We used RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression levels were affected(More)