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Cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (cyMDH) is an enzyme crucial for malate synthesis in the cytosol. The apple MdcyMDH gene (GenBank Accession No. DQ221207) encoding the cyMDH enzyme in apple was cloned and functionally characterized. The protein was subcellularly localized to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Based on kinetic parameters, it(More)
Low environmental temperatures promote anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration by up-regulating the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in many fruit trees. However, the molecular mechanism by which fruit trees regulate this process in response to low temperature (LT) remains largely unknown. In this study, the(More)
Plant growth is greatly affected by low temperatures, and the expression of a number of genes is induced by cold stress. Although many genes in the cold signaling pathway have been identified in Arabidopsis, little is known about the transcription factors involved in the cold stress response in apple. Here, we show that the apple bHLH (basic(More)
It is well-known that cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (cyMDH; l-malate:NAD-oxidoreductase; EC is an enzyme crucial for malic acid synthesis in the cytosol. Nothing is known about cyMDH in growth and stress tolerance. Here we characterised the role of the apple cyMDH gene (MdcyMDH, GenBank ID: DQ221207) in growth and tolerance to cold(More)
Plants respond to various environmental stresses by activating “stress genes”. CIPKs (CBL-interacting protein kinases) family genes play an important role in the process of stress response. In this study, a CIPK gene MdSOS2 was isolated from apple (Malus × Domestica). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that it is highly similar with(More)
The microRNA miR156 is involved in the regulation of plant growth and development by specifically restricting the transcripts of target genes. In this study, the Md-miR156h gene and its target cDNA fragments, specifically, MdSPL2a-b, MdSPL4, MdSPL6a-g, MdSPL9a-b, MdSPL13a-e and MdSPL15, were isolated from the apple cultivar ‘Gala’. Phylogenetic analysis(More)
The miRNA miR172 is involved in the regulation of flowering time and floral organ development by specifically restricting the transcripts of target gene APETELA2 (AP2) transcription factors. In our study, Md-miR172e and its target genes, MdAP2 and MdAP2-1 to MdAP2-7, were isolated from the apple cultivar Royal Gala (Malus × domestica). Phylogenetic tree(More)
Shoot-tips of 10 strawberry genotypes were successfully cryopreserved using a modified encapsulation-dehydration method. All genotypes survived cryopreservation with high survival and regeneration rates. Eight Joho single-bud sibling lines were established as a model system for genetic analysis. Although cytological examination found chromosomal variation(More)
Vacuole H(+)-ATPases (VHAs) are plant proton pumps, which play a crucial role in plant growth and stress tolerance. In the present study, we demonstrated that the apple vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit A (MdVHA-A) is highly conserved with subunit A of VHA (VHA-A) proteins from other plant species. MdVHA-A was expressed in vegetative and reproductive organs. In(More)
Cell suspensions of twelve citrus genotypes were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. All genotypes survived cryopreservation with >90% viability and the surviving cells of some genotypes regenerated somatic embryos better than the controls. Single-cell sibling lines of cultivar Newhall were used for cytological and molecular examination. It was(More)