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DNA microarray technology has now made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes during important biological processes and across collections of related samples. Elucidating the patterns hidden in gene expression data offers a tremendous opportunity for an enhanced understanding of functional genomics. However, the(More)
DNA arrays can be used to measure the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously. Currently most research focuses on the interpretation of the meaning of the data. However, majority methods are supervised-based, less attention has been paid on unsupervised approaches which is important when domain knowledge is incomplete or hard to obtain. In(More)
Extensive studies have shown that mining microarray data sets is important in bioinformatics research and biomedical applications. In this paper, we explore a novel type of gene-sample-time microarray data sets, which records the expression levels of various genes under a set of samples during a series of time points. In particular, we propose the mining of(More)
Kinetic data on a number of protein-protein associations have provided evidence for the initial formation of a pre-equilibrium encounter complex that subsequently relaxes to the final stereospecific complex. Site-directed mutagenesis and brownian dynamics simulations have suggested that the rate of association can be modulated by perturbations in charge(More)
Large-scale domain rearrangements in proteins have long been recognized to have a critical function in ligand binding and recognition, catalysis and regulation. Crystal structures have provided a static picture of the apo (usually open) and holo usually closed) states. The general question arises as to whether the apo state exists as a single species in(More)
The use of (1)H transverse paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) has seen a resurgence in recent years as method for providing long-range distance information for structural studies and as a probe of large amplitude motions and lowly populated transient intermediates in macromolecular association. In this paper we discuss various practical aspects(More)
HIV-1 protease processes the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins into mature structural and functional proteins, including itself, and is therefore indispensable for viral maturation. The mature protease is active only as a dimer with each subunit contributing catalytic residues. The full-length transframe region protease precursor appears to be monomeric yet(More)
Microarray technologies are capable of simultaneously measuring the signals for thousands of messenger RNAs and large numbers of proteins from single samples. Arrays are now widely used in basic biomedical research for mRNA expression profiling and are increasingly being used to explore patterns of gene expression in clinical research. Most research has(More)
Another kind of dynamics: Ubiquitin noncovalently dimerizes with a dissociation constant of approximately 5 mM. The two subunits adopt an array of relative orientations, utilizing an interface also for binding to other proteins (see picture). Quaternary fluctuation among members of the dimer ensemble constitutes a different kind of dynamics that complements(More)
Fungi form a diverse microbial community in the human intestine. Little is known about the succession of species after intestinal transplantation. We investigated the alterations of the gut fungal population in 2 patients with intestinal allografts. The ileal effluent and feces were fingerprinted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, with(More)