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This paper presents a novel hands-free control system for an electric-powered wheelchair, which is based on EMG (Electromyography) signals recorded from eyebrow muscle activity. By using a simple CyberLink device, one-dimensional continuous EMG signals are obtained, analysed, and then translated into multi-directional control commands (forward, left, right,(More)
Due to the non-stationarity of EEG signals, online training and adaptation are essential to EEG based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. Self-paced BCIs offer more natural human-machine interaction than synchronous BCIs, but it is a great challenge to train and adapt a self-paced BCI online because the user's control intention and timing are usually(More)
Due to the non-stationarity of EEG signals, online training and adaptation is essential to EEG based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. Asynchronous BCI offers more natural human-machine interaction, but it is a great challenge to train and adapt an asynchronous BCI online because the user's control intention and timing are usually unknown. This paper(More)
A novel 4-class single-trial brain computer interface (BCI) based on two (rather than four or more) binary linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers is proposed, which is called a "parallel BCI." Unlike other BCIs where mental tasks are executed and classified in a serial way one after another, the parallel BCI uses properly designed parallel mental(More)
We present our design and online experiments of a 3-class asynchronous BCI controlling a simulated robot in an indoor environment. Two characteristics of our design have efficiently decreased the false positive rate during the NC (No Control) mode. First, three one-vs-rest LDA classifiers are combined to control the switching between NC and IC (In Control)(More)
This paper presents a simple self-paced motor imagery based brain-computer interface (BCI) to control a robotic wheelchair. An innovative control protocol is proposed to enable a 2-class self-paced BCI for wheelchair control, in which the user makes path planning and fully controls the wheelchair except for the automatic obstacle avoidance based on a laser(More)
Aiming at developing asynchronous BCIs, we tested 21 2-class combinations of 7 mental tasks to determine whether any pair of tasks may be more suitable. The tasks under consideration were: auditory recall, mental navigation, sensorimotor attention (left hand), sensorimotor attention (right hand), mental calculation, imaginary movement (left hand), imaginary(More)
In continuous wave ultrasonic Doppler tomography (DT), the ultrasonic beam moves relative to the scanned object to acquire Doppler-shifted frequency spectra which correspond to cross-range projections of the scattering and reflecting structures within the object. The relative motion can be circular or linear. These data are then backprojected to reconstruct(More)
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