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Polymicrobial sepsis alters the adaptive immune response and induces T cell suppression and Th2 immune polarization. We identify a GR-1(+)CD11b(+) population whose numbers dramatically increase and remain elevated in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow during polymicrobial sepsis. Phenotypically, these cells are heterogeneous, immature, predominantly(More)
To investigate alcohol dependency and the potential role of age of initial alcohol consumption, Long-Evans (LE) rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet starting at postnatal (P) ages (days): P23-27 (juvenile), P35-45 (adolescent) or P65-97 (young adult). Severity of subsequent withdrawal symptoms was dependent on age when consumption began and on(More)
Lung injury in trauma patients exposed to a secondary infectious/septic challenge contributes to the high morbidity/mortality observed in this population. Associated pathology involves a dys-regulation of immune function, specifically, sequestration of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the lungs. The targeting of PMN is thought to involve the(More)
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) extravasation/sequestration in the lung and a dysregulated inflammatory response characterize the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Previously, we have shown that hemorrhage (Hem) serves to prime PMN such that subsequent septic challenge [cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)] produces a pathological, inflammatory(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) is identified with the targeting/sequestration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to the lung. Instrumental to PMN targeting are chemokines [e.g., macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), etc.] produced by macrophage, PMN, and other resident pulmonary cells. However, the relative contribution(More)
INTRODUCTION Sepsis is a deadly inflammatory condition that often leads to an immune suppressed state; however, the events leading to this state remain poorly understood. B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is an immune-regulatory receptor shown to effectively inhibit CD4+ T-cell function. Therefore, our objectives were to determine: 1) if lymphocyte BTLA(More)
NKT cells have been described as innate regulatory cells because of their rapid response to conserved glycolipids presented on CD1d via their invariant TCR. However, little is known about the contribution of the hepatic NKT cell to the development of a local and/or systemic immune response to acute septic challenge (cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)). We(More)
The effect of chronic ethanol consumption on cerebral cortical activity of Na,K-ATPase was determined in Long-Evans (LE) rats fed an ethanol-containing diet beginning at different stages of development. Na,K-ATPase activity was operationally resolved into alpha1 and alpha2/3 isozyme activities. There was no significant difference in Na,K-ATPase activities(More)
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a common organ dysfunction in the critically ill patient. Mechanisms for its development have focused on immune mediated causes, aspects of our understanding are not complete, and we lack biomarkers. Blood and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from humans (n = 10–13) with ARDS and controls (n = 5–10) as(More)
BACKGROUND Severe gram-negative bacterial infections and sepsis are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Dysregulated, excessive proinflammatory cytokine expression contributes to the pathogenesis of sepsis. A CD28 mimetic peptide (AB103; previously known as p2TA) that attenuates CD28 signaling and T-helper type 1 cytokine responses was tested for its(More)
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