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Polymicrobial sepsis alters the adaptive immune response and induces T cell suppression and Th2 immune polarization. We identify a GR-1(+)CD11b(+) population whose numbers dramatically increase and remain elevated in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow during polymicrobial sepsis. Phenotypically, these cells are heterogeneous, immature, predominantly(More)
Sepsis, a leading cause of death worldwide, involves concomitant expression of an overzealous inflammatory response and inefficient bacterial clearance. Macrophage function is pivotal to the development of these two aspects during sepsis; however, the mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. Here we report that the PD-1:PD-L pathway appears to be(More)
Apoptosis and inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of direct/pulmonary acute lung injury (ALI). However, the role of the Fas receptor-driven apoptotic pathway in indirect/nonpulmonary ALI is virtually unstudied. We hypothesized that if Fas or caspase-8 plays a role in the induction of indirect ALI, their local silencing using small(More)
PURPOSE Sepsis syndrome represents the leading cause of death in intensive care unit. Patients present features consistent with a decline in immune responsiveness potentially contributing to mortality. We investigated whether CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) participate in the induction of lymphocyte anergy after sepsis. METHOD Observational study(More)
Increased apoptotic cell death is believed to play a pathological role in patients with sepsis and experimental animals. Apoptosis can be induced by either a cell death receptor (extrinsic) or a mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway. Bid, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, is thought to mediate the cross talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways(More)
Sepsis and multiple organ failure continue to be significant problems among trauma, burn, and the critically ill patient population. Thus, a number of laboratories have focused on understanding the role of altered apoptotic cell death in contributing to immune and organ dysfunction seen in sepsis and shock. Immune cells that undergo altered apoptotic(More)
Although studies have shown increased evidence of death receptor-driven apoptosis in intestinal lymphoid cells, splenocytes, and the liver following the onset of polymicrobial sepsis, little is known about the mediators controlling this process or their pathologic contribution. We therefore attempted to test the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic(More)
Lung injury in trauma patients exposed to a secondary infectious/septic challenge contributes to the high morbidity/mortality observed in this population. Associated pathology involves a dys-regulation of immune function, specifically, sequestration of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the lungs. The targeting of PMN is thought to involve the(More)
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) extravasation/sequestration in the lung and a dysregulated inflammatory response characterize the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Previously, we have shown that hemorrhage (Hem) serves to prime PMN such that subsequent septic challenge [cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)] produces a pathological, inflammatory(More)
Acute lung injury (ALI) leading to respiratory distress is a common sequela of shock/trauma, however, modeling this process in mice with a single shock or septic event is inconsistent. One explanation is that hemorrhage is often just a "priming insult," thus, secondary stimuli may be required to "trigger" ALI. To test this we carried out studies in which we(More)