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Proteins can exist in a trinity of structures: the ordered state, the molten globule, and the random coil. The five following examples suggest that native protein structure can correspond to any of the three states (not just the ordered state) and that protein function can arise from any of the three states and their transitions. (1) In a process that(More)
We used 2D protein gel electrophoresis and DNA microarray technologies to systematically analyze genes under glucose repression in B:acillus subtilis. In particular, we focused on genes expressed after the shift from glycolytic to gluconeogenic at the middle logarithmic phase of growth in a nutrient sporulation medium, which remained repressed by the(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the effect of neuraminidase (NA) mutations on the NA inhibitor (NAI) resistance phenotype, the recombinant influenza A/Chungbuk/4448/2008(H1N1) virus isolated in South Korea during the 2008-2009 season was generated by reverse genetics. METHODS Site-directed mutagenesis was introduced on the NA gene of A/Chungbuk/4448/2008(H1N1)(More)
In Bacillus subtilis, activity of the general stress transcription factor sigma B is controlled posttranslationally by a regulatory network that transmits signals of environmental and metabolic stress. These signals include heat, ethanol, or osmotic challenge, or a sharp decrease in cellular energy levels, and all ultimately control sigma B activity by(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) is generally increased during inflammatory airway diseases. This increased NO stimulates the secretion of mucin from the goblet cell and submucosal glands but the mechanism is still unknown precisely. In this study, we investigated potential signaling pathways involving protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase(More)
Influenza epidemics arise through the acquisition of viral genetic changes to overcome immunity from previous infections. An increasing number of complete genomes of influenza viruses have been sequenced in Asia in recent years. Knowledge about the genomes of the seasonal influenza viruses from different countries in Asia is valuable for monitoring and(More)
To identify oseltamivir resistance, we analyzed neuraminidase H275Y mutations in samples from 10 patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in South Korea who had influenza that was refractory to antiviral treatment with this drug. A neuraminidase I117M mutation that might influence oseltamivir susceptibility was detected in sequential specimens from(More)
OBJECTIVES To monitor antiviral drug resistance among seasonal influenza viruses isolated in Korea during the 2008-2009 influenza season, we examined influenza isolates collected through Korea Influenza Surveillance Scheme for antiviral drug susceptibility. METHODS For genetic analysis of antiviral drug resistance, the matrix (M2) and neuraminidase (NA)(More)
Amantadine resistance among influenza A viruses was investigated in South Korea in 2005–2010. Of 308 influenza A viruses examined, 229 had the S31N substitution in the M2 protein. The frequency of amantadine resistance was 30 %, 100 %, and 76 % in influenza A/H1N1, pandemic A/H1N1 2009(A/H1N1pdm), and A/H3N2 subtypes, respectively. The amantadine-resistant(More)
Massachusetts, USA (late-breaker posters session, abstract V-448c). Eleven patients with drug-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were identified in South Korea during May 2009–January 2010. Virus isolates from all patients had the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene. One isolate had the I117M mutation. Of the 11 patients, 6 were <59 months of age, and 5(More)