Chun Kang

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Particle inhalation-induced lung inflammation acts as an adjuvant to allergens or respiratory viral infection in a process that is mediated by macrophages and epitheliums. The production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 by activated T cells is involved in the augmentation of Th2-type immune responses to particles, and IL-25 induces the synthesis of IL-4 and(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) is generally increased during inflammatory airway diseases. This increased NO stimulates the secretion of mucin from the goblet cell and submucosal glands but the mechanism is still unknown precisely. In this study, we investigated potential signaling pathways involving protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase(More)
BACKGROUND From 2002 through 2006, Republic of Korea conducted extensive measles elimination activities and declared elimination in 2006. An outbreak of measles involving 180 confirmed cases occurred during 2007. METHODS An outbreak investigation was performed and enhanced surveillance was implemented. Detailed case investigations and laboratory testing(More)
BACKGROUND Inhalation of particles aggravates respiratory symptoms including mucus hypersecretion in patients with chronic airway disease and induces goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH) in experimental animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. METHODS To understand this, the numbers of goblet cells, Muc5ac (+) expressing(More)
To identify oseltamivir resistance, we analyzed neuraminidase H275Y mutations in samples from 10 patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in South Korea who had influenza that was refractory to antiviral treatment with this drug. A neuraminidase I117M mutation that might influence oseltamivir susceptibility was detected in sequential specimens from(More)
Influenza epidemics arise through the acquisition of viral genetic changes to overcome immunity from previous infections. An increasing number of complete genomes of influenza viruses have been sequenced in Asia in recent years. Knowledge about the genomes of the seasonal influenza viruses from different countries in Asia is valuable for monitoring and(More)
Transmission of influenza (H5N1) virus from birds to humans is a serious public health threat. In South Korea, serologic investigation among 2,512 poultry workers exposed during December 2003-March 2004 to poultry with confirmed or suspected influenza (H5N1) virus infection found antibodies in 9. Frequency of bird-to-human transmission was low.
OBJECTIVES To monitor antiviral drug resistance among seasonal influenza viruses isolated in Korea during the 2008-2009 influenza season, we examined influenza isolates collected through Korea Influenza Surveillance Scheme for antiviral drug susceptibility. METHODS For genetic analysis of antiviral drug resistance, the matrix (M2) and neuraminidase (NA)(More)
Amantadine resistance among influenza A viruses was investigated in South Korea in 2005–2010. Of 308 influenza A viruses examined, 229 had the S31N substitution in the M2 protein. The frequency of amantadine resistance was 30 %, 100 %, and 76 % in influenza A/H1N1, pandemic A/H1N1 2009(A/H1N1pdm), and A/H3N2 subtypes, respectively. The amantadine-resistant(More)
Massachusetts, USA (late-breaker posters session, abstract V-448c). Eleven patients with drug-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were identified in South Korea during May 2009–January 2010. Virus isolates from all patients had the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene. One isolate had the I117M mutation. Of the 11 patients, 6 were <59 months of age, and 5(More)