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Cell transplantation using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to alleviate neurological deficits has recently become the focus of research in regenerative medicine. Evidence suggests that secretion of various growth-promoting substances likely plays an important role in functional recovery against neurological diseases. In an attempt to identify a possible(More)
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been used to treat ischemic stroke. However, scientific evidence related to its effectiveness or precise modes of neuroprotective action is largely unclear. This study provides evidence of an alternative target for TMP and sheds light on the mechanism of its physiological benefits. We report a global inhibitory effect of TMP on(More)
Japanese encephalitis is characterized by profound neuronal destruction/dysfunction and concomitant microgliosis/astrogliosis. Although substantial activation of glia is observed in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced Japanese encephalitis, the inflammatory responses and consequences of astrocytes and microglial activation after JEV infection are not(More)
It is hypothesized that manganese neurotoxicity could be secondary to a diminution of cellular protective and scavenger mechanisms. Since manganese is known to be sequestered in glial cells, we investigated possible neurotoxic mechanisms involving astrocytes in vitro. Astrocytes differentiated into process-bearing stellate cells in response to manganese(More)
Redox-active metals are of paramount importance for biological functions. Their impact and cellular activities participate in the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the central nervous system (CNS), including inflammatory responses. Manganese is an essential trace element and it is required for normal biological activities and ubiquitous(More)
In traditional Chinese medicine, Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (Chuan Xiong) and its active ingredient tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and to relieve various neurological symptoms such as ischemic deficits. However, scientific evidence related to their effectiveness or precise modes of neuroprotective action is(More)
Because of the well-documented importance of glutamate clearance by astrocytes in protecting neurons against excitotoxicity, it was interesting to examine whether L-glutamate exerts a toxic action on cultured astrocytes. Cell damage was evaluated by measuring activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the culture medium. Exposure of astrocyte(More)
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are able to down-regulate expression of adhesion molecules and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in vascular endothelial cells, in addition to reducing atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. We report here that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) reduces atherosclerotic lesions in the(More)
It is well recognized that bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into neuron-like cells when supplemented with growth factors and/or chemical treatments. We demonstrated that primary MSCs obtained from adult rats could spontaneously differentiate into neural precursor cells after long-term culture. During the outset of in vitro culture, less(More)