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Alternative policies to address global climate change are being debated in many nations and within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. To help provide objective and comprehensive analyses in support of this process, we have developed a model of the global climate system consisting of coupled sub-models of economic growth and(More)
TRAF6 is a signal transducer that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) and Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in response to pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IKK activation by TRAF6 requires two intermediary factors, TRAF6-regulated IKK activator 1 (TRIKA1) and TRIKA2 (ref. 5). TRIKA1 is a dimeric(More)
Chemical composition, size, and mixing state of atmospheric particles are critical in determining their effects on the environment. There is growing evidence that soot aerosols play a particularly important role in both climate and human health, but still relatively little is known of their physical and chemical nature. In addition, the atmospheric(More)
Hippocampal organotypic slice cultures maintained 10-20 days in vitro express a high level of the polysialylated embryonic form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (PSA-NCAM). Treatment of the cultures with endoneuraminidase-N selectively removed polysialic acid (PSA) from NCAM and completely prevented induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and(More)
Both acute and chronic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and dizocilpine have been proposed to mimic some of the symptoms of schizophrenia. The purposes of the present study were first, to characterize the long-term behavioral and neurodegenerative effects of subchronic administration of phencyclidine(More)
Changes in redox status have been observed during immune responses in different organisms, but the associated signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. In plants, these redox changes regulate the conformation of NPR1, a master regulator of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense genes. NPR1 is sequestered in the cytoplasm as an oligomer through(More)
An algorithm is presented that scales the pixel intensities of a computer generated greyscale image so that they are all displayable on a standard CRT. This scaling is spatially nonuniform over the image in that different pixels with the same intensity in the original image may have different intensities in the resulting image. The goal of this scaling(More)
1. In eight adult cats intense, sharply circumscribed, monocular laser lesions were used to remove all cellular layers of the retina. The extents of the retinal lesions were subsequently confirmed with counts of alpha-ganglion cells in retinal whole mounts; in some cases these revealed radial segmental degeneration of ganglion cells distal to the lesion. 2.(More)
Sex-typed cognitive abilities were assessed in 33 hypogonadal men receiving testosterone replacement therapy, 10 eugonadal men receiving testosterone in a male contraceptive clinical trial, and 19 eugonadal men not administered testosterone. Prior to and following hormone administration, men completed four tests measuring visuospatial ability, three tests(More)