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The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-driven rotary molecular motor that is a transmembrane proton pump in all eukaryotic cells. Although its activity is fundamental to many physiological processes, our understanding of the structure and mechanism of the V-ATPase is poor. Using cryo-electron microscopy of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) enzyme,(More)
The V-ATPase is a membrane-bound protein complex which pumps protons across the membrane to generate a large proton motive force through the coupling of an ATP-driven 3-stroke rotary motor (V1) to a multistroke proton pump (Vo). This is done with near 100% efficiency, which is achieved in part by flexibility within the central rotor axle and stator(More)
BACKGROUND The role of IGF binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) in cancer development is intriguing. Previously we identified IGFBP2 as an extrinsic factor that supports the activity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). METHODS AND RESULTS Here we investigated the role of IGFBP2 in in human leukemia cells and in the retroviral AML1-ETO9a transplantation acute(More)
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Genome-wide association studies have implicated the importance of the genetic contribution of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) function in CAD susceptibility. The aberrant phenotypic modulation of VSMC is responsible for the pathological vascular intima hyperplasia(More)
Multi-species intercropping is a sustainable agricultural practice worldwide used to utilize resources more efficiently. In intercropping systems, short crops often grow under vegetative shade of tall crops. Soybean, one important legume, is often planted in intercropping. However, little is known about the mechanisms of shade inhibition effect on leaf size(More)
The crop intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) vary markedly in different intercropping systems. The HHLA (horizontally homogeneous leaf area) and ERCRT (extended row crop radiation transmission) models have been established to calculate the intercepted PAR for intercrops. However, there is still a lack of(More)
Acute kidney injury is a clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of renal function and acute tubular necrosis. Resveratrol exerts a wide range of pharmacological effects based on its anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. The present study aimed to evaluate whether resveratrol attenuates acute kidney injury in a cisplatin‑induced(More)
Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) directly interact with the immune system and have potential for immune privilege. Although the microenvironment or niche provides protection for HSCs from immune attack, HSCs are also capable of interacting with the immune system as signal "providers" and signal(More)
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