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Based on quantitative cluster analyses of 52 constitutively expressed or behaviorally regulated genes in 23 brain regions, we present a global view of telencephalic organization of birds. The patterns of constitutively expressed genes revealed a partial mirror image organization of three major cell populations that wrap above, around, and below the(More)
In our companion study (Jarvis et al. [2013] J Comp Neurol. doi: 10.1002/cne.23404) we used quantitative brain molecular profiling to discover that distinct subdivisions in the avian pallium above and below the ventricle and the associated mesopallium lamina have similar molecular profiles, leading to a hypothesis that they may form as continuous(More)
Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and(More)
Like humans, birds that exhibit vocal learning have relatively delayed telencephalon maturation, resulting in a disproportionately smaller brain prenatally but enlarged telencephalon in adulthood relative to vocal non-learning birds. To determine if this size difference results from evolutionary changes in cell-autonomous or cell-interdependent(More)
Knowing the timing, level, cellular localization, and cell type that a gene is expressed in contributes to our understanding of the function of the gene. Each of these features can be accomplished with in situ hybridization to mRNAs within cells. Here we present a radioactive in situ hybridization method modified from Clayton et al. (1988)(1) that has been(More)
Only a few distantly related mammals and birds have the trait of complex vocal learning, which is the ability to imitate novel sounds. This ability is critical for speech acquisition and production in humans, and is attributed to specialized forebrain vocal control circuits that have several unique connections relative to adjacent brain circuits. As a(More)
Cells are fundamental units of life, but little is known about evolution of cell states. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are once differentiated cells that have been re-programmed to an embryonic stem cell-like state, providing a powerful platform for biology and medicine. However, they have been limited to a few mammalian species. Here we found that(More)
Pluripotent stem cells have the potential to become any cell in the adult body, including neurons and glia. Avian stem cells could be used to study questions, like vocal learning, that would be difficult to examine with traditional mouse models. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are differentiated cells that have been reprogrammed to a pluripotent stem(More)
This Review focuses on the development of metal aminoboranes; it discusses their synthesis, structure, chemical characterization, and applications. The lightweight nature of the molecules, the simplified procedures for the synthesis of the target compounds, the reversibility of hydrogen storage and dehydrogenation, and in-depth research on the mechanism of(More)
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