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We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome.(More)
Oryza (23 species; 10 genome types) contains the world's most important food crop - rice. Although the rice genome serves as an essential tool for biological research, little is known about the evolution of the other Oryza genome types. They contain a historical record of genomic changes that led to diversification of this genus around the world as well as(More)
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) are molecular chaperones that contain thioredoxin (TRX) domains and aid in the formation of proper disulfide bonds during protein folding. To identify plant PDI-like (PDIL) proteins, a genome-wide search of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was carried out to produce a comprehensive list of 104 genes encoding proteins(More)
Retroposition is widely found to play essential roles in origination of new mammalian and other animal genes. However, the scarcity of retrogenes in plants has led to the assumption that plant genomes rarely evolve new gene duplicates by retroposition, despite abundant retrotransposons in plants and a reported long terminal repeat (LTR)(More)
Data from four DNA regions (rbcL, matK, 26S rDNA, and ITS) as well as extant and fossil morphology were used to reconstruct the phylogeny and biogeographic history of an intercontinentally disjunct plant group, the cornelian cherries of Cornus (dogwoods). The study tests previous hypotheses on the relative roles of two Tertiary land bridges, the North(More)
The cultivation of rice in Africa dates back more than 3,000 years. Interestingly, African rice is not of the same origin as Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) but rather is an entirely different species (i.e., Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Here we present a high-quality assembly and annotation of the O. glaberrima genome and detailed analyses of its evolutionary(More)
A central goal of evolutionary genetics is an understanding of the forces responsible for the observed variation, both within and between species. Theoretical and empirical work have demonstrated that genetic recombination contributes to this variation by breaking down linkage between nucleotide sites, thus allowing them to behave independently and for(More)
Tandem gene duplication is one of the major gene duplication mechanisms in eukaryotes, as illustrated by the prevalence of gene family clusters. Tandem duplicated paralogs usually share the same regulatory element, and as a consequence, they are likely to perform similar biological functions. Here, we provide an example of a newly evolved tandem duplicate(More)
PEX11 gene family has been shown to be involved in peroxisome biogenesis but very little is known about this gene family in rice. Here we show that five putative PEX11 genes (OsPEX11-1-5) present in rice genome and each contain three conserved motifs. The PEX11 sequences from rice and other species can be classified into three major groups. Among the five(More)
Most eukaryotic centromeres contain large quantities of repetitive DNA, such as satellite repeats and retrotransposons. Unlike most transposons in plant genomes, the centromeric retrotransposon (CR) family is conserved over long evolutionary periods among a majority of the grass species. CR elements are highly concentrated in centromeres, and are likely to(More)