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Coronaviruses have the potential to cause severe transmissible human disease, as demonstrated by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak of 2003. We describe here the clinical and virological features of a novel coronavirus infection causing severe respiratory illness in a patient transferred to London, United Kingdom, from the Gulf region of(More)
Systemic opioids produce analgesia in part by activating bulbospinal noradrenergic pathways. Spinally released norepinephrine (NE) has been suggested to produce analgesia in part by stimulating alpha2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic spinal interneurons to release acetylcholine (ACh). We hypothesized that this spinally released ACh would stimulate synthesis of(More)
On 22 September 2012, a novel coronavirus, very closely related to that from a fatal case in Saudi Arabia three months previously, was detected in a previously well adult transferred to intensive care in London from Qatar with severe respiratory illness. Strict respiratory isolation was instituted. Ten days after last exposure, none of 64 close contacts had(More)
BACKGROUND Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, the most commonly used analgesics, reduce pain not only by inhibiting cyclooxygenase at peripheral sites of inflammation but also by potentially inhibiting cyclooxygenase in the central nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Animal studies suggest that products of cyclooxygenase in the spinal cord do not(More)
To date no satisfactory method has been available for the quantitative in vivo measurement of the complex hepatic blood flow. In this study two modelling approaches are proposed for the analysis of liver blood flow using positron emission tomography (PET). Five experiments were performed on three foxhounds. The anaesthetised dogs were each given an(More)
The mechanisms supporting temporal processing of pain remain poorly understood. To determine the involvement of opioid mechanisms in temporal processing of pain, responses to dynamic noxious thermal stimuli and offset analgesia were assessed after administration of naloxone, a μ-opioid antagonist, and on a separate day, during and after intravenous(More)
BACKGROUND Intrathecal injection of clonidine and dexmedetomidine produce behavioral analgesia by an alpha 2-adrenergic mechanism. Functional and anatomic studies suggest that this analgesia is mediated by cholinergic activation. This hypothesis was directly tested by measuring extracellular acetylcholine concentrations in spinal cord interstitial fluid by(More)
Sensitivity to the vasoconstricting actions of adrenergic agents is altered during pregnancy and is drug-, regional vascular bed-, and endothelium-dependent. To examine whether the uterine perfusion-sparing property of ephedrine is due to local actions, we examined the effects in vitro of ephedrine and the alpha-adrenergic agonist metaraminol(More)
BACKGROUND Intrathecal neostigmine may produce analgesia by itself and may enhance analgesia from spinal clonidine. Before clinical trials, the spinal cord blood flow effects of these drugs alone and in combination should be examined in animals. METHODS Conscious, nonpregnant ewes with indwelling vascular and thoracic spinal catheters received intrathecal(More)
This study was conducted to assess spinal safety of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor ketorolac in dogs and rats. Beagle dogs were prepared with lumbar intrathecal catheters and received continuous spinal infusions of 5 mg/ml ketorolac (N = 6), 0.5 mg/ml ketorolac (N = 8), or saline vehicle (N = 6) at 50 microl/h (1.2 ml/day) for 28 days. No systematic drug or(More)